Animal-World > References Index > Marine - Reef References

Animal-World References Marine and Reef
Saltwater Fish ~ Corals ~ Invertebrates

Marine Aquariums ~ Reef Aquariums

Book References:

  1. Robert Fenner, Surgeonfishes: Tangs for Marine Aquariums: Diversity, Selection & Care, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015
  2. Scott W. Michael, The 101 Best Marine Invertebrates: How to Choose & Keep Hardy, Brilliant, Fascinating Species That Will Thrive in Your Home Aquarium, TFH Publications, 2008
  3. Nancy King, Colin Dunlop, Cephalopods: Octopuses and Cuttlefish for the Home Aquarium, TFH Publications, 2008
  4. Steve Parker, The Encyclopedia of Sharks Revised Edition, Firefly Books, 2008
  5. John P. Hoover, Hawaii's Fishes : A Guide for Snorkelers and Divers, Mutual Publishing, 2007
  6. John P. Hoover, Hawaii's Sea Creatures: A Guide to Hawaii's Marine Invertebrates, Mutual Publishing, 2006
  7. Rudie H. Kuiter, Seahorses, Pipefishes and Their Relatives: A Comprehensive Guide to Syngnathiformes, TMC Publishing, 2001
  8. Neil Garrick-Maidonent, Seahorses: Conservation and Care, TFH Publications, 1997
  9. Scott W. Michael, Wrasses & Parrotfishes: The Complete Illustrated Guide to Their Identification, Behaviors, and Captive Care, TFH Publications, 2008
  10. Scott W. Michael, The 101 Best Saltwater Fishes: How to Choose & Keep Hardy, Brilliant, Fascinating Species That Will Thrive in Your Home , TFH Publications, 2007
  11. Bob Goemans, The Marine Fish Health & Feeding Handbook: The Essential Guide to Keeping Saltwater Species Alive and Thriving, TFH Publications, 2008
  12. Anthony Calfo, Book of Coral Propagation, Volume 1 Edition 2: Reef Gardening for Aquarists, Reading Trees; 2 edition, 2007
  13. Matthew L. Wittenrich, The Complete Illustrated Breeder's Guide to Marine Aquarium Fishes, TFH Publications, 2007
  14. Scott W. Michael , Damselfishes & Anemonefishes, TFH Publications, 2008
  15. Helmut Debelius and Rudie H. Kuiter, World Atlas of Marine Fishes, (in German) Hollywood Import & Export, Inc., 2006
  16. John E. Randall, Reef and Shore Fishes of the South Pacific: New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands, University of Hawaii Press, 2005
  17. Ronald L. Shimek, Guide to Marine Invertebrates: 500+ Essential-to-Know Aquarium Species, Microcosm, 2005
  18. Alf Jacob Nilsen and Svein A. Fossa, Reef Secrets: Starting Right, Selecting Fishes & Invertebrates, Advanced Biotope Techniques , T.F.H Publications inc., 2003
  19. John E. Randall, Surgeonfishes of the World, Mutual Publishing, 2002
  20. Paul Humann and Ned DeLoach, Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas, New World Publications; 3rd edition, 2002
  21. Scott W. Michael, Reef Fishes Volume 1, T.F.H Publications inc., 2001
  22. Vincent B. Hargreaves, The Complete Book of the Marine Aquarium, Thunder Bay Press, 2002
  23. Nick Dakin, foreword by Julian Sprung, Complete Encyclopedia of the Saltwater Aquarium , Firefly Books, Ltd, 2003
  24. Scott W. Michael, Marine Fishes: 500+ Essential-To-Know Aquarium Species, T.F.H Publications inc., 1999
  25. W. Burgess, H. Axelrod, Fishes of California and Western Mexico, T.F.H. Publications, 1984
  26. Scott W. Michael, Reef Aquarium Fishes: 500+ Essential-to-Know Species, Microcosm Ltd, 2006
  27. Scott W. Michael, Fred Bavendam, Paul Humann, and Rudie Kuiter, Basslets, Dottybacks and Hawkfishes: Plus Seven More Aqarium Fish Families with Expert Captive Care Advice for the Marine Aquarist , Microcosm Ltd, 2004
  28. Scott W. Michael, Angelfishes & Butterflyfishes: Reef Fishes Series , Microcosm Ltd, 2004
  29. Kuiter, R., Butterflyfishes, Bannerfishes & Their Relatives, a Comprehensive Guide to Chaetodontidae & Microcanthidae, TMC-Publishing, UK, 2002
  30. H. Debelius, H. Tanaka and R. Kuiter, Angelfishes, A Comprehensive Guide to Pomacanthidae, TMC-Publishing, UK, 2003
  31. Kuiter, R. and. Tonozuka, T., Indonesian Reef Fishes, 3 volume-set, Dive & Dive’s of Bali, 2005
  32. Gunther, A., Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum, Vol 2 , Wheldon & Wesley and Verlag Cramer (1964 edition), 1860.
  33. Neil Garrick-Maidment, Seahorses : Conservation and Care, T.F.H Publications inc., 2003
  34. Rudie H. Kuiter, Seahorses, Pipefishes and Their Relatives: A Comprehensive Guide to Syngnathiformes, TMC Publishing, 2001
  35. Rudie H. Kuiter and Helmut Debelius, Surgeonfishes, Rabbitfishes and Their Relatives. A Comprehensive Guide to Acanthuroidei, TMC Publishing, 2001
  36. Rudie H. Kuiter, Fairy & Rainbow Wrasses and Their Relatives: A Conprehensive Guide to Selected Labroid, TMC Publishing, 2002
  37. Daniel Knop, Giant Clams: A Comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tridacnid Clams , Ricordea Publishing, 1996
  38. Robert M. Fenner, The Conscientious Marine Aquarist: A Commonsense Handbook for Successful Saltwater Hobbyists , TFH Publications, 2001
  39. Anthony Calfo and Robert M. Fenner, Reef Invertebrates: An Essential Guide to Selection, Care and Compatibility , Reading Trees, 2003
  40. John H. Tullock, The Reef Tank Owner's Manual, Aardvark Press, 1992
  41. John H. Tullock, Natural Reef Aquariums: Simplified Approaches to Creating Living Saltwater Microcosms , 2001
  42. Julian Sprung and Daniel Ramirez, Invertebrates: A Quick Reference Guide (Oceanographic Series), Ricordea Publishing, 2001
  43. Julian Sprung and J. Charles Delbeek, The Reef Aquarium: A Comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tropical Marine Invertebrates (Volume 1), Ricordea Publishing, 1994
  44. Julian Sprung and J. Charles Delbeek, The Reef Aquarium: A Comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tropical Marine Invertebrates (Volume 2), Two Little Fishes; 1st edition, 1997
  45. Carmen Field, Conrad Field, Alaska's Seashore Creatures: A Guide to Marine Invertebrates, Alaska Northwest Books, 1999
  46. Rick M. Harbo, Shells and Shellfish of the Pacific Northwest, Harbour, 1997
  47. Julian Sprung, The Reef Aquarium: Science, Art, and Technology, (Volume 3), Ricordea Publishing, 2005
  48. Julian Sprung, Algae: A Problem Solver Guide (Oceanographic Series) , Ricordea Publishing, 2002
  49. Eric Borneman, Aquarium Corals : Selection, Husbandry, and Natural History , TFH Publications, 2001
  50. Ed Puterbaugh and Eric Borneman, A Practical Guide to Corals for the Reef Aquarium , Crystal Publications, 1996
  51. Helmut Debelius and Hans A. Baensch, Marine Atlas Volume 1 (Baensch Marine Atlas), Microcosm Ltd, 1997
  52. Harry Erhardt and Horst Moosleitner, Marine Atlas Volume 2, Invertebrates (Baensch Marine Atlas), Mergus Verlag GmbH, Revised edition, 2005
  53. Harry Erhardt and Horst Moosleitner, Baensch Marine Atlas, Vol. 3 (Baensch Marine Atlas), Microcosm Ltd, Revised edition, 1998
  54. Dr. P.V. Loiselle and Hans A. Baensch, Marine Aquarist Manual, Tetra Press, 1991
  55. Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, Raymond E. Hunziker III, Dr. Burgess's Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes, T.F.H Publications inc., 1990
  56. Joyce D. Wilkerson, Clownfishes, TFH Publications, 1997
  57. Martin A. Moe, Scott W. Michael, Laura Williams, and Kelvin Aitken, Aquarium Sharks & Rays: An Essential Guide to Their Selection, Keeping, and Natural History, TFH Publications, 2003
  58. Martin A. Moe Jr.,  The Marine Aquarium Handbook: Beginner to Breeder , Green Turtle Publications, 1992
  59. Martin A. Moe Jr.,  Marine Aquarium Reference, Systems and Invertebrates , Green Turtle Publications, 1992
  60. Albert J. Theil, Advanced Reef Keeping, Aardvark Press, 1989
  61. Albert J. Theil, Small Reef Aquarium Basics: The Optimum Aquarium for the Reef Hobbyist , Energy Savers Unlimited; Rev&Up Date edition, 1991
  62. Albert J. Theil, Advanced Reef Keeping, Aardvark Press, 1989
  63. Roger Steene, Coral Seas, Firefly Books Ltd, 1998
  64. J.E.N. Veron, Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific , University of Hawaii Press; 2Rev Ed edition, 1993
  65. Gerald R. Allen and Roger Steene, Indo-Pacific Coral Reef Field Guide, Sea Challengers; Reprint Ed, 1998
  66. Dr. Gerald R. Allen, Damselfishes Of The World, Aquarium Systems, 1991
  67. Mark Allen, Roger Steene and Gerald R. Allen, A Guide to Angelfishes and Butterflyfishes , Odyssey Publishing, 1998
  68. Randall, J., Coastal Fishes of Oman, University of Hawaii Press, 1996
  69. Khalaf, M and Disi, A., Fishes of the Gulf of Aqaba, Kegan Paul Intl, 2002
  70. Cuvier, G. in Cuvier, G. & Valenciennes, A., Histoire naturelle des poissons, 22 vols. (1828-1849), Kegan Paul Intl, 2002
  71. Daphne G. Fautin and Gerald R. Allen, Field Guide to Anemonefishes and Their Host Sea Anemones, Western Australian Museum, 1992
  72. Dr. Gerald R. Allen, Damselfishes of the World, MERGUS Publishers, 1991.
  73. P. Humann, Coastal Fish Identification, California to Alaska, New World Pubns Inc, 1996
  74. Dr. Gerald R. Allen, Damselfishes of the South Seas, TFH Publications, 1995
  75. Fautin, D. G. and Allen, Dr. G.R. , Anemone Fishes and Their Host Sea Anemones, Voyageur Press, 1994
  76. John E. Randall, Gerald R. Allen, Roger C. Steene, Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, Revised edition, University of Hawaii Press, 1996
  77. Dr. Gerald R. Allen, Butterfly and Angelfishes of the World Volume 2, Aquarium Systems; 3rd edition,1985
  78. Warren E. Burgess, Butterflyfishes of the World, TFH Publications,1978
  79. Dr. Gerald R. Allen, Appendix: Butterfly and Angelfishes of the World, Volume 2, Mergus, Germany. 7pp, 1986
  80. Roger Steene, Gerald R. Allen, Hans A. Baensch, Butterfly and Angelfishes of the World, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, 1980
  81. Roger Steene, Butterfly and Angelfishes of the World, Volume 1, Mergus, Germany, 1977
  82. Frank Schneidewind, Kaiserfische, (in German) 1999.
  83. Patzner, R. and Moosleitner, H., Meerwasser Atlas, Band 6, (in German) Mergus, Germany, 1999.
  84. Burgess.,W. and Axelrod H., Pacific Marine Fishes Book 4 fishes of Taiwan and Adjacent Waters , TFH Publications,1974
  85. Burgess.,W. and Axelrod H., Pacific Marine Fishes - Book 1: Fishes of Southern Japan and the Ryukyu Islands, TFH Publications,1973
  86. Terrence M. Gosliner, David W. Behrens, and Gary C. Williams, Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific: Animal Life from Africa to Hawaii Exclusive of the Vertebrates , Sea Challengers, 1996
  87. George Blasiola, The Saltwater Aquarium Handbook, Barron's Educational Series; Revised edition, 2000
  88. Nick Dakin, The Book of the Marine Aquarium, Voyageur Press (MN), 1993
  89. Hillary Hauser, Book of Marine Fishes, Best Pub Co, 1995
  90. Warren E. Burgess, ABC's of Marine Aquariums, Putnam Publishing Group, 1992
  91. C. W. Emmens, Step by Step Book About Setting Up a Marine Aquarium, TFH Publications, 1990
  92. C. W. Emmens, Miniature Reef Aquarium in Your Home, TFH Publications, Revised Ed, 1989
  93. Craig Barker, Starting a Marine Aquarium, TFH Publications, 1981
  94. Edmund J. Mowka, The Seawater Manual: Fundamentals of Water Chemistry for Marine Aquarists, Aquarium Systems Inc, 1981

Magazine & Publications

  1. Adorian Ardelean, Family Actinodendronidae, University of Kansas. Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center, Referenced Online 2009,
  2. Jim McDavid, Large Angels in the Home Aquariums, Part 1, Advanced Aquarist, Copyright 2003
  3. Tim Anderson, Koran Angelfish, Tim's Tropicals
  4. Dwarf Pygmy Angelfish, Tropical Fish Information, Copyright 2011
  5. Gregory Schiemer, Aquarium Fish: Pomacanthus navarchus - The Majestic Angelfish, Advanced Aquarist, Copyright 2003
  6. Bongaerts, P, C Riginos, T Ridgway, EM Sampayo, MJH van Oppen, N Englebert, F Vermeulen and O Hoegh-Guldberg, Genetic Divergence across Habitats in the Widespread Coral Seriatopora hystrix and Its Associated Symbiodinium, PLoS ONE 5(5): e10871. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010871, 2010
  7. Ronald L. Shimek, Ph.D., The LIfe and Death of Sea Pens, Reefkeeping Magazine, Reef Central, LLC, Copyright 2008
  8. Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Fleshy Sea Pen),
  9. Sea Pen, Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation
  10. Sea Pen, Wikipedia
  11. Agu Lukk, Propagating Nepthea sp . and Lobophytum crassum , Reefkeeping Magazine, Reef Central, LLC, Copyright 2007-10
  12. Yamazato, K., M. Sato and H. Yamashiro, Reproductive Biology of an Alcyonacean coral, Lobophytum crassum , ReefBase Online Library, 1982
  13. Mark R. Patternson, Patterns of Whole Colony Prey Capture in the Octocoral, Alcyonium siderium, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Copyright ©2000-2010 JSTOR
  14. Y. Benayuahu and Y. Loya, Sexual Reproduction of a Soft Coral: Synchronous and Breaf Annual Spawning of Sarcophyton glaucum, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Copyright ©2000-2010 JSTOR
  15. Biscembranes from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton glaucum, ACS Publications, American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy, Copyright 2006
  16. Albert J Thiel, Heteractis Type Anemones,, Copyright 1995-2008,
  17. J. Charles Delbeek, The Effects of Lighting on Bulb-tip Development in the Bulb Tentacle Anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor (Rüppell and Leukart, 1828), with Additional Observations on Sexual Reproduction in E. quadricolor and Stichodactyla gigantea (Forsskål, 1775), Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine, Copyright 2003
  18. K. & N. Sanamyan, D. Schories and H. Krumbeck, Urticina felina (Tealia felina) (Linnaeus, 1761),, Copyright 2004 - 2008
  19. K. & N. Sanamyan, D. Schories and H. Krumbeck, Urticina grebelnyi (Sanamyan & Sanamyan, 2006): Painted Anemone,, Copyright 2004 - 2008
  20. Key Information researched by: Angus Jackson & Dr Keith Hiscock, Dahlia anemone - Urticina felina, MarLIN, The Marine Life Information Network
  21. K. & N. Sanamyan, D. Schories and H. Krumbeck, Urticina crassicornis (O.F. Mueller, 1776),, Copyright 2004 - 2008
  22. Urticina crassicornis, The Northern Red Anemone or The Painted Urticina, Intertidal Marine Invertebrates of the South Puget Sound, 2009,
  23. Roa-Quiaoit, Kochzius, Jantzen, Zibdah, and Richter, Collapse of a New Living Species of Giant Clam in the Red Sea, Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 17, Pages 1349-1354. 9 September 2008.
  24. Steven E. Wedi and Daphne Fautin Dunn, GAMETOGENENSIS AND RERODUCTIVE PERIODICITY OF THE SUBTIDAL SEA ANEMONE URTICINA LOFOTENSIS IN CALIFORNIA, JSTOR, This journal is licensed to JESTER by American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Copyright ©2000-2006
  25. Joel Elliott, The role of sea anemones as refuges and feeding habitats for the temperate fish Oxylebius pictus, Environmental Biology of Fishes, Dec 1992, Vol 35, Issue 4, pp 381–400
  26. Hiroyuki Tanaka, Richard L. Pyle, and John E. Randall, The Color Phases of the Fairy Wrasse Cirrhilabrus roseafascia and Comparison with C. lanceolatus, In press, Tokyo, 2006.
  27. Steven Pro, Marine Head & Lateral Line Erosion: A Description of the Syndrome and a Review of its Speculated Causes, Reefkeeping, an online magazine for the marine aquarist, 2006
  28. Prepared by Casey Patton, DOCTORFISH, ICHTHYOLOGY at the Florida Museum of Natural History, Accessed online Dec, 2006
  29. Thin Finger Leather Coral Sinularia flexibis,, Copyright 2003-2008
  30. John P. Hoover, Brown Surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus, Marine life guides for Hawaii, Fish of the Month, May 2003
  31. Randall, J. & Lubbock, R., Three new labrid fishes of the genus Cirrhilabrus from the Southwestern Pacific, Occ.Paper, B. P. Bishop, Mus. 25(2): 1-12., 1982.
  32. Snyder, J. O., A catalogue of the shore fishes collected by steamer Albatross about the Hawaiian Islands in 1902, Bulletin, United States Fish Commision, 22: 513-538, 1904.
  33. Randall, J., A review of the labrid fishes of the genus Cirrhilabrus from Japan, Taiwan and the Mariana Islands, with descriptions of two new species, Micronesica 25(1); 99-121, 1992.
  34. Randall, J. & Nagareda, B., Cirrhilabrus bathyphilus, a new deep-dwelling labrid fish from the Coral Sea, Cybium 2002, 26(2); 123-127, 2002.
  35. Randall, J. & Carpenter, K., Three new labrid fishes of the genus Cirrhilabrus from the Philippines., Rev. fr. d'Aquariol. 7(1); 17-26., 1980.
  36. Dr. Lexa Grutter and her team, Cleaner Fish Do Clean!, Coral Reef Ecology Laboratory
  37. Bernardi, G.; Bucciarelli, G.; Costagliola, D.; Robertson, D. R.; and Heiser, J.B., Evolution of coral reef fish Thalassoma spp. (Labridae). 1. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography, Marine biology, Vol.144, No. 2, (pp. 369-375), 2004.
  38. Henry C. Schultz III, Fish Tales, online magazine for the marine aquarist, Reef Central™, LLC, 2003.
  39. Michael, Scott W., No-Hassle Wrasse., Marine Fish and Reef USA, Annual Volume 8; 88-95, 2006.
  40. Randall, J. and Wass, R., Two new pomacanthid fishes of the genus Centropyge from Oceania., Jap. J. Ichthyol. 21(3): 137-144., 1974.
  41. Smith-Vaniz and Randall, J., Two new species of angelfishes (Centropyge) from the Cocos-Keeling Islands., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 126(8):105-113, 1974.
  42. Issue No. 4 Specific Gravity, Salinity, Density, Aqua Craft®, Inc., Fuji Publishing Group, 2000.
  43. Bshary R, and Wurth M., Cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus manipulate client reef fish by providing tactile stimulation, PubMed, MPIV Seewiesen, Starnberg, Germany, 2001, July 22
  44. Tebbich S, Bshary R, and Grutter A.S., Cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus recognise familiar clients. Max Planck Institute for Behaviour and Physiology, Germany, Sep;5(3):139-45, 2002
  45. Arnal C, Verneau O, and Desdevises Y., Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of cleaning behaviour in the family Labridae: importance of body colour pattern, PubMed, Parasitologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Universite de Perpignan, Cedex, France, May;19(3), 2006
  46. Alexander Mustard, Cleaners - friend or foe, Alexander Mustard's Guide to the Ecology of Coral Reef,
  47. T. Shigeta, H. Usuki, and K.Gushima, Interaction Between Cleaner and Host: The Black Porgy Cleaning Behavior of Juvenile Sharpnose Tigerfish, Rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus in the Seto Inland Sea, Western Japan
  48. Treasurer, John W., A review of potential pathogens of sea lice and the application of cleaner fish in biological control, PubMed, Publisher: Pest Management Science, Volume 58(546-558), 2002
  49. Alexandra S. Grutter, Fish cleaning behaviour in Noumea, New Caledonia, CSIRO PUBLISHING for CSIRO Australia and the Australian Academy of Science, Volume 50, 1999
  50. Ray, Raising Cleaner Wrasse, RAY'S REEF
  51. The Secret Appetite of Cleaner Wrasses, Science News, August 2, 2003
  52. Alexandra S. Grutter, Effect of the removal of cleaner Fish on the abundance and species composition of reef Fish, University of Queensland, Australia, 7 February 1997
  53. Redouan Bshary, The cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, is a key organism for reef fish diversity at Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt, Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 72 (pp.169), January 2003
  54. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) in Sri Lanka, Spotlight on Species Archive, Bicolor Cleaner Wrasse
  55. Colette Wabnitz, Michelle Taylor, Edmund Green, Tries Razak, From Ocean to Aquaria: The Global Trade in Marine Ornamental Species (Bluestreak Cleaner Wrasse), UNEP-WCMC, 2003
  56. Karen L. Cheney and Isabelle M. Côté, The ultimate effect of being cleaned: does ectoparasite removal have reproductive consequences for damselfish clients?,  Oxford Journals, Behavior Ecology, 2 February 2003
  57. Henry C. Schultz III, Fish Tales: The Leopards of the Reef, Reefkeeping, an online magazine for the marine aquarist, July 2002
  58. Steven Pro, Marine Ich/Cryptocaryon irritans - A Discussionof this Parasite and the Treament Options Available, Part 1, Reefkeeping, an online magazine for the marine aquarist, August 2003
  59. Nick Ireland, Beautiful and Hardy Surgeonfish, Marine Fish and Reef, USA,Reefkeeping, Fancy Publications, a division of BowTie © 2005 by BowTie Inc, Annual Volume 8, pp. 42-48, 2005
  60. Page researched and compiled by M. McGrouther (November 2004), Eye stripe Surgeonfish, Acanthurus dussumieri, Australian Museum Online, Copyright © Australian Museum, 2006
  61. Henry C. Schultz III, Fish Tales: Is it a Comb or a Bristle (Surgeonfish)? The Genus Ctenochaetus, Reefkeeping, an online magazine for the marine aquarist, July 2003
  62. Gregory Schiemer, Aquarium Fish: Fish Ethics and the Vlamingi Tang, Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine, 2003
  63. Henry C. Schultz III, Fish Tales: Unicorns: More Than a Myth in Reef Aquariums; The Genus Naso, Reefkeeping, an online magazine for the marine aquarist, July 2005
  64. Klausewitz, W., Centropyge eibli, n. sp. von den Nikobaren (Pisces, Percoidea, Pomacanthidae), Senck. boil., 44(3); 177-181, 1963.
  65. Carlson, B. &.Tailor, V., Holacanthus griffisi, a new species of angelfish from the central Pacific Ocean, Freshwater and Marine Aquarist: 8-11, 1981.
  66. Tanaka, H., Two Similar Angelfish from the Red Sea., Aqua (in press), Thailand, 2006.
  67. Kner, R., Ueber neue Fische aus dem Museum der Herren Johann Caser Godeffroy und Sohn in Humburg, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien., 58; 293-395, 9plts., 1868.
  68. Linnaeus, C., Systema Naturae. ed. Decima. Systema Naturae sive regna tria naturae, systematicae proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species, cum characteribus, differentiss, synonymis, locis, etc. Editio Decima, reformata, Holmiae, 1758. Regnum animale, ⅱ, 842pp.
  69. McCulloch, A. R., Notes on fishes from Australia and Lord Howe Island, Rec. Aust. Mus., 14 (1): 1-22. 14pls., 1923.
  70. Jordan, D. and Seale, A., The fishes of Samoa, description of species found in the archipelago, with a provisional check-list of the fishes of Oceania, Bull. Bur. Fish., 25; 175-455, 1906.
  71. Whitley, G., Fishes from New Caledonia, Proc. Roy. Zool. Soc., N.S.W. 1958-59; 60-65, 1961.
  72. Hydrozoa (Class),
  73. Tanaka, H., The Golden Angelfish, Centropyge aurantia, Randall & Wass. Freshw. Mar. Aquar. Mag. 16 (11) : 104-112,
  74. Pyle, R., Rare & Unusual Marines; The Golden Angelfish Centropyge aurantius, Aqua, Thailand. (in Thai). 1933
  75. Fish Hole in the Head Disease By Neale Monks, Ph.D. Copyright ©2013 I-5 Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved
  76. AQUARIUM FISH:  Surgeonfishes, A.K.A. the Tangs
    By James W. Fatherree, M.Sc.
    Copyright © 2002-2013 by Pomacanthus Publications, LLC, all rights reserved.
    AQUARIUM FISH: Activated carbon affirmed as causative agent for HLLI disease
    By Leonard Ho
    Copyright © 2002-2013 by Pomacanthus Publications, LLC, all rights reserved.

Miscellaneous References:

  1. James W. Fatherree, M.Sc., Aquarium Fish: Surgeonfishes, A.K.A. the Tangs, Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine, 2009
  2. Crocea Clam: Tridacna crocea, Reef Corner, 2015
  3. Crocea Clam, Aquacultured (Tridacna crocea), LiveAquaria, 2015
  4. Hippopus Clam, Aquacultured (Hippopus hippopus), LiveAquaria, 2015
  5. Dersa Clam, Aquacultured (Tridacna derasa), LiveAquaria, 2015
  6. Maxima Clam Multicolored, Aquacultured (Tridacna maxima), LiveAquaria, 2015
  7. James W. Fatherree, M.Sc., A Look at the Giant Clam Tridacna gigas, Advanced Aquarist, 2010
  8. James Fatherree, M.Sc., Aquarium Invertebrates: A Look at the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima, Advanced Aquarist, 2012
  9. James W. Fatherree, M.Sc., A Look at the Hippopus Clams, Advanced Aquarist, 2010
  10. James Fatherree, M.Sc., A Close-up Look at Tridacna crocea, Reefkeeping Magazine, Reef Central, 2008
  11. James FatherreeM.Sc., Aquarium Invertebrates: A Look at the Giant Clam Tridacna squamosa, Advanced Aquarist, 2013
  12. John P. Hoover, Potter’s Angelfish, Centropyge potteri,, Fish of the Month, April 2004
  13. Jack Harrang, Gorgon in Plumes (Sea Gorgonian Feather),
  14. Anne Frijsinger, Mat Vestjens, Rumphella Antipathes - Shrub Buschgorgonie, Seawater-Lexikon, Holland
  15. Hexacorallians of the World; Sea anemones, Corals, and their allies,, Catalogue of species, distribution maps, and images. Dr. Daphne G. Fautin
  16. Muriceopsis Sulphurea (Donovan, 1825), "Spiny Gorgonian, Sulfer Soft Coral", San Diego State University, Guide of Corals, 2014
  17. Pterogorgia anceps (Pallis, 1766),Gorgoniidae, South Florida Octocorals, A guide to Identification
  18. Grooved-Blade Sea Whip, Florent's Guide to The Florida, Brahmas and Caribbean Reefs
  19. R. Collin, M. C. Diaz, J. Norenburg, R. M. Rocha, J.A. Sancheze, A Shulze, M. Schwartz, A Valdes, Photographic Identification Guide to Some Common Marine Invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama, Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, 638-707, 2005
  20. Susan Thornton DeVictor, Wildlife Biologist II, Leptogorgia virgulata (sea whip), L. hebes (regal sea fan), and their associates, Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center, South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
  21. S. T. DeVictor, S. L. Morton, Leptogorgia cardinalis (Bayer, 1961), Guide to the Shallow Water (0-200 m) Octocorals of the South Atlantic Bight, Family Gorgoniidae, 2007
  22. S. T. DeVictor, S. L. Morton, Leptogorgia virgulata (Lamarck, 1815), Guide to the Shallow Water (0-200 m) Octocorals of the South Atlantic Bight, Family Gorgoniidae, 2007
  23. Bastian T. Reijnena, Catherine S. McFaddenb, Yosephine T. Hermanlimiantoc, Leendert P. van Ofwegena, A molecular and morphological exploration of the generic boundaries in the family Melithaeidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) and its taxonomic consequences, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 70, Jan. 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  24. MarLIN, The Marine Life Information Network,,
  25. Coral Reef Eco-Systems -
  26. CoralSearch -
  28. Coral Reef Eco-Systems -
  29. FishIndex -
  30. J&L Aquatics -
  31. Jeff's Exotic Fish -
  32. Marine Depot -
  33. Superior Reef Aquatics -
  34. That Fish Place / That Pet Place -
  35. WetWebMedia -
  36. LiveAquaria -
  37. The Marine Center -
  38. Fish Lore -
  39. The Cephalopod Page -, by Dr. James B. Wood - Director of Education at the Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California.
  40. Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology -
  41. Saltcorner, Aquarium Library by Bob Goemans -
  42. -
  43. The Fishline, Coral ID,
  44. Drs. Foster & Smith,

Articles and General References

  1. Stu Wobbe, Exploring Cold-Water Tanks, Reef Hobbyist Magazine, 2015
  2. The Corals of the Mediterranean, Oceana, with the assistance of Fondazione Zegna
  3. Randy Homes-Farley, Reef Aquarium Water Parameters, Reef Central LLC, 2008
  4. Julian Sprung, Feature Article: Jaubert's Method, The 'Monaco System,' Defined And Refined, Advanced Aquarist, 2002
  5. Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., Aiptasia couchii (Gosse, 1858) trumpet anemone, Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland, 2009
  6. Julian Sprung, Caribbean Gorgonians: Beauty in Motion, Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine, Copyright 2003
  7. Bob Fenner, The Soft Corals, Order Alcyonacea; Use In Marine Aquariums,
  8. The Frugal Reefer, You can mass produce Xenia for trade or sale, Garf. org, referenced 2010
  9. Pulsating Xenia, Reef Corner, referenced 2010
  10. Jo Henry and Lisa Ferrier, Metridium giganteum (Fautin, Bucklin, & Hand, 1989), Identification tools and natural history accounts of the biota of The Evergreen State College.
  11. Scott Boyd, Metridium Anemones, Emerald Sea Photography, Copyright 2008
  12. Cynthia D. Kelly, Thomas J. Fellers and Michael W. Davidson, Metridium, Microscopy Resource Center, Olympus America Inc., Copyright 2000-2008
  13. Julian Sprung, Aquarium Invertebrates, Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine, Copyright 2002
  14. Nanette E. Chadwick, Department of Zoology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Interspecific Aggressive Behavior of the corallimorpharian Corynactis Californica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Effect on Sympatric Corals and Sea Anemones, Licensed to JSTOR by American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Copyright 2000-2006
  15. Dave Cowles, Metridium giganteum Fautin, Bucklin, and Hand, 1989, Walla Walla University, 2005
  16. Great White Shark Predator of the Deep, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  17. University of California Museum of Paleontology, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  18. Shark Trust & IUCN Shark Specialist Group, Prepared by Ian K. Fergusson, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  19., Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  20. White Shark Diving, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  21. Monterey Bay Aquarium: White Shark Research Project, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  22. Shark Diver Magazine, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias
  23. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research
  24. Biology of the White Shark, by R. Aidan Martin:, Great White Shark - Carcharodon carcharias


  1. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
  2. FishBase, A global information system on fishes. A relational database developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and many other partners along with support from the European Commission (EC) and a consortium of nine research institutions.
  3. SeaLifeBase, A global information system on marine life. Assembled with the help of many partners, the support of the Oak Foundation, and the Global Geengrants Fund.
  4. WORMS World Registry of Marine Species, "The aim of a World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms, including information on synonymy. While highest priority goes to valid names, other names in use are included so that this register can serve as a guide to interpret taxonomic literature"
  5. Catalogue of Life: 30th April 2017, The Catalogue of Life combines the outputs of the Species 2000 and the ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) programmes. This release contains contributions from 157 databases with information on 1,628,180 living species. The global marine species list is part of the World Register of Marine Species database, which aims to provide the most authoritative list of names of all marine species globally.
  6. Catalogue of Life, Catalogue of Life programme aims to create a uniform and validated index to the world's known species for use as a practical tool in inventorying and monitoring biodiversity worldwide. It is the most comprehensive and authoritative global index of species currently available. It consists of a single integrated species checklist and taxonomic hierarchy. The Catalogue holds essential information on the names, relationships and distributions of over 1.6 million species.
  7. Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), Encyclopedia of Life began in 2007 with the bold idea to provide “a webpage for every species. This resource gathers, generates, and shares knowledge in an open, freely accessible and trusted digital resource to increase awareness and understanding of living nature.
  8. ITIS: Integrated Taxonomic Information System, Authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
  9. CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), "an international agreement between Governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through..."
  10. UNEP-WCMC United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, "Working towards a wiser world: one in which everyone recognizes that the diversity of life on Earth is vital to the future of humanity. The Centre strives to promote wiser decision-making and a sustainable future by providing information on the conservation and sustainable management of the living world."
  11. ARKive, ARKive is a ‘virtual’ conservation effort. "Using film, photographs and audio recordings, ARKive is creating a unique record of the world’s biodiversity - complementing other species information datasets, and making a key resource available for scientists, conservationists, educators and the general public."

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