The Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit is a species of cottontail rabbit native to the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States. Many people mistake it for the much more common Eastern Cottontail, but they have several differences. Keep reading while we take a closer look at this hard-to-find rabbit. Here’s an introduction to their appearance, habitat, and traits to help you identify them more easily in the wild.

Size:15–17 inches long
Weight:1–3 pounds
Lifespan:<1 years
Similar Breeds:Brown with black
Suitable for:Wild
Temperament:Shy and skittish

The Appalachian Cottontail has a relatively limited range compared to other cottontail rabbit species. You will find it primarily in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania in densely vegetated areas, such as brushy fields, thickets, and forest edges. They have a dark brown coat, which helps them blend in with their forested surroundings, and they also have distinctive long ears with black tips, which enable them to detect predators and other potential threats. In addition, they feed on various plant materials, including grasses, sedges, clover, and other herbaceous plants, and depend on specific vegetation types for food and cover.

Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit Breed Characteristics

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Temperament & Intelligence of the Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit

Can the Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit be Kept as a Pet?

Unfortunately, we don’t usually keep Appalachian Cottontail Rabbits as pets for several reasons. First, it’s illegal to keep most wild rabbit species as pets in the United States, and this is a threatened breed, so it’s best left in its natural habitat without any outside interference so their numbers can begin to grow. These rabbits also require a highly specialized environment and have specific dietary needs that are difficult to duplicate. They are not tame or socialized with humans, so they can become stressed or frightened by captivity which can shorten their lifespan.

How the Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit Became Endangered

While the Appalachian Cottontail was once far more common, their numbers have declined due to habitat loss and trapping, which caused the International Union for Conservation of Nature to list them as near threatened in 2019. Conservation is underway to protect and restore their habitat since they are an important food source for many other animals, including coyotes, foxes, and birds of prey, making them an important part of the ecosystem.


Things to Know About Appalachian Cottontail Rabbits

Food & Diet Requirements

The Appalachian cottontail rabbit is an herbivore that primarily feeds on grass, herbs, and other vegetation. They need lots of plants to provide the necessary fiber and help wear down the teeth that grow continuously throughout their lives. They also need access to clean, fresh water to stay hydrated. If you live in their environment, you can plant grass, blueberry bushes, and other shrubs to help provide food and shelter.


The Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit is comfortable in various habitats, including forest woodlands, brush areas, and fields throughout the Appalachian Mountain regions of North America. They enjoy areas with dense vegetation where they have some protection while searching for food and like high altitudes above 2,500 feet near a stream or other water source.


The Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit is a medium-sized rabbit that’s usually 14–18 inches long. The fur is brown or gray, and they will have a white belly and a distinctive cotton ball tail that is white on the underside, which gives them their name. Their long ears can measure up to 4 inches, and they have large, dark eyes. The male and female look similar, although the males are slightly larger. Overall, they look similar to the Eastern Cottontail but are smaller and have a dark border around the ears.


The Appalachian Cottontail rabbit has many predators, including hawks, owls, eagles, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, weasels, snakes, and even humans. Their brown or gray coat provides a natural camouflage that helps them blend into their surroundings, and they can freeze in place for up to 15 minutes to avoid detection. They are also quite fast and can reach up to 18 miles an hour and make sudden turns and movements to avoid predators, while their long back legs can help them jump up to 10 feet high.

Lifespan and Health Conditions

The lifespan of the Appalachian cottontail rabbit can vary depending on several factors, including habitat, predation, and disease. In general, they have a relatively short lifespan compared to other small mammals, with an average lifespan of about 1–3 years in the wild.

Minor Conditions
  • Parasites
Serious Conditions
  • Myxomatosis
  • Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease


The Myxomatosis virus spreads between rabbits by close contact and biting insects like mosquitoes and fleas. It causes swelling and discharge from the eyes, nose, and anogenital region, and most rabbits die within 14 days. A vaccine exists, but it’s controversial because some worry it can cause the disease to spread due to it being a weakened form of the virus.

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease is highly contagious, with a mortality rate close to 100%. Symptoms include bleeding from the mouth, nose, or rectum, fever, and difficulty breathing. Unfortunately, once symptoms appear, collapse and death usually occur within 12–36 hours. Unfortunately, there is no treatment at this time.


Various internal and external parasites can affect the Appalachian Cottontail rabbit. Some of these parasites include fleas, ticks, and tapeworms, and they can lead to several health problems, from Lyme disease to anemia.

Divider-rabbit2Male vs Female

Male Appalachian Cottontail rabbits are usually a little larger than the females. They have larger bodies, broader heads, and longer ears. The males are generally more territorial and can become aggressive during mating, while the females are more elusive and less active.

Top 6 Unique Facts About Appalachian Cottontail Rabbits

  1. The Appalachian Cottontail is a unique rabbit species found only in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States.
  2. The Appalachian Cottontail is a selective feeder that may prefer certain plant species over others.
  3. The Appalachian Cottontail is primarily active at night and during the early morning hours and may be less active during the day to avoid predators.
  4. The Appalachian Cottontail is vulnerable to climate change due to its restricted range and specific habitat requirements.
  5. The Appalachian cottontail rabbit is sometimes called the “Mountain Cottontail” due to its habitat in the Appalachian Mountains.
  6. Witnesses have reported seeing them swim across rivers or streams to escape predators, although this behavior is uncommon.



The Appalachian Cottontail rabbit is a small but agile and quick-moving mammal inhabiting the Appalachian Mountains’ forests and fields. They are reputable for their distinctive cotton ball tail, keen sense of smell, and ability to run and jump quickly to evade predators. Although they are primarily herbivores, they are an important prey species for many predators and play a critical role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems in which they live. While they may not make good pets, the Appalachian Cottontail rabbit is a fascinating and important animal that deserves our attention and protection.

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Featured Image Credit: Appalachian Cottontail Rabbit | Carly & Art, Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 2.0