Shubunkin Goldfish

Calico Goldfish, Speckled Goldfish, Harlequin Goldfish

Family: Cyprinidae Shubunkin Goldfish (London type), Calico Goldfish, Speckled Goldfish, Harlequin Goldfish, Coronation FishShubunkin Goldfish (London type)Carassius auratus auratusPhoto © Animal-World: Courtesy David Brough
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I supply class goldfish and high quality fish. and have full stock now also. welcome to visit our stock seb: Class goldfish... (more)  Hou

The Shubunkin Goldfish have a wild calico patterning set on a blue background... a color that is quite rare in goldfish!

The Shubunkin Goldfish are beautiful fish that are almost always speckled or have a variegated color pattern. However, what makes the Shubunkin's appearance unique is not their wild calico patterning, but their blue color. Blue is a color that is quite rare in goldfish. The Shubunkin are called Chuwen-chin in China. But in Japan, where they were probably developed in about 1900, they are called Shubunkin, and this is the name that they are known by throughout the western world.

Shubunkin Goldfish can have many colors in its patterning, which has led to it often being referred to as the Calico Goldfish. These colors include yellows, oranges, reds, browns, blacks, purples, grays, and whites, all set on a blue background. Other descriptive names for this fish are Speckled Goldfish, Coronation Fish, and Harlequin Goldfish. The blue coloring is quite rare, which makes the Shubunkin a more valuable goldfish.

There are two types of Shubunkins, the London and the Bristol. The London type is much more common than the Bristol type and is usually what you will find at pet stores. Both types of Shubunkin Goldfish, especially the London type, as seen above, are recommended as a beginner fish.

These fancy goldfish are one of the hardiest of the goldfish varieties. They are an easy fish to keep as they are not picky and will readily eat what is offered. They are active and strong swimmers. They are also very social and thrive in a community. Other goldfish recommended for beginners include the Fantail Goldfish, Common Goldfish, and the Comet Goldfish.

For more goldfish information, see:
Goldfish Care: Fancy Goldfish and Goldfish Diseases

Geographic Distribution
Carassius auratus auratus
Data provided by
  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Actinopterygii
  • Order: Cypriniformes
  • Family: Cyprinidae
  • Genus: Carassius
  • Species: auratus auratus
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Shubunkin Goldfish - Quick Aquarium Care
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Beginner
  • Size of fish - inches: 18.0 inches (45.72 cm)
  • Minimum Tank Size: 15 gal (57 L)
  • Temperament: Peaceful
  • Aquarium Hardiness: Very Hardy
  • Temperature: 65.0 to 72.0° F (18.3 to 22.2° C)
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Habitat: Distribution / Background

The goldfish of today are descendants of a species of wild carp known as the Prussian Carp, Silver Prussian carp, or Gibel Carp Carassius gibelio (syn: Carassius auratus gibelio), which was described by Bloch in 1782. These wild carp originated in Asia; Central Asia (Siberia). They inhabit the slow moving and stagnant waters of rivers, lakes, ponds, and ditches feeding on plants, detritus, small crustaceans, and insects.

For many years, it was believed that goldfish had originated from the Crucian Carp Carassius carassius described by Linnaeus in 1758. This fish has a wide range across the waters of the European continent, running west to east from England to Russia, north to Scandinavian countries in the Arctic Circle and as far south as the central France and the Black Sea. However, recent genetic research points to C. gibelio as a more likely ancestor.

Goldfish were originally developed in China. By the 1500s, goldfish were traded to Japan, arriving in Europe in the 1600s and America in the 1800s. The majority of the fancy goldfish were developed by Asian breeders. We can see the results of this centuries-long endeavor in the wonderful colors and shapes of goldfish today.

The Shubunkin Goldfish was probably developed in Japan around 1900. Other common names they are known by include Calico Goldfish, Speckled Goldfish, Harlequin Goldfish, and Coronation Fish. Today, domesticated goldfish are distributed world-wide, and the Shubunkin is one of the more than 125 captive-bred varieties of goldfish.

  • Scientific Name: Carassius auratus auratus
  • Social Grouping: Groups - Can be kept singly or in groups.
  • IUCN Red List: NE - Not Evaluated or not listed - There are no wild populations of this captive-bred variety.


The Shubunkin Goldfish is an elongated, flat-bodied variety of goldfish. The head is wide but short, and its body tapers smoothly from its back and belly to the base of its caudal fin (tail fin), which is forked. Its fins generally stand fully erect, and the edge of the dorsal fin is slightly concave. The average goldfish lifespan is 10 – 15 years, though living 20 years or more is not uncommon in well-maintained goldfish aquariums and ponds.

There are two types of Shubunkins, the London and the Bristol. The London type is very similar to the Common Goldfish, having the same body and fin shapes. The Common Goldfish, however, is larger and has completely different coloring--a solid bright orange. The Bristol type Shubunkin has an enormous tail fin that is very wide and moderately forked with well-rounded lobes.

The Shubunkin Goldfish is somewhat smaller than the Common Goldfish. The environment it is kept in is a determining factor in whether your pet will grow to its full potential size. In an average 15 gallon tank, if well cared for and not crowded, they will grow up to about 5 inches (12.7 cm). In a bigger, uncrowded tank, they can grow larger generally reach about 6 inches (15 cm), though some hobbyists report their Shubunkins reaching up to 13" (33 cm). In some cases, they even reach a whopping 18" (43.7 cm).

Shubunkin Goldfish can have many colors in its patterning. These colors include yellows, oranges, reds, browns, blacks, purples, grays, and whites, all set on a blue background. The color blue is quite rare, which makes the Shubunkin a more valuable goldfish.

  • Size of fish - inches: 18.0 inches (45.72 cm) - About five inches is a likely adult size for the Shubunkin Goldfish. But they can reach up to 18 inches in exceedingly well-maintained large tanks and ponds.
  • Lifespan: 15 years - The average goldfish lifespan is 10 – 15 years, though living 20 years or more is not uncommon in well-maintained goldfish aquariums and ponds.

Fish Keeping Difficulty

Shubunkin Goldfish are some of the hardier species of goldfish. They are very undemanding of water quality and temperature. They can do well in a goldfish aquarium or even a pond as long as the environment is safe and their tankmates are not competitive.

Many people will keep goldfish in an aquarium with no heater or filtration, but for the best success, provide them the same filtration, especially biological filtration, that other aquarium residents enjoy.

  • Aquarium Hardiness: Very Hardy
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Beginner

Foods and Feeding

Since they are omnivorous, the Shubunkin Goldfish will generally eat all kinds of fresh, frozen, and flake foods. To care for Shubunkin goldfish, keep a good balance by giving them a high quality flake food everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen), blood worms, Daphnia, or tubifex worms as a treat. It is usually better to feed freeze-dried foods as opposed to live foods to avoid parasites and bacterial infections that could be present in live foods.

  • Diet Type: Omnivore
  • Flake Food: Yes
  • Tablet / Pellet: Yes
  • Live foods (fishes, shrimps, worms): Some of Diet
  • Vegetable Food: Some of Diet
  • Meaty Food: Some of Diet
  • Feeding Frequency: Several feedings per day

Aquarium Care

These goldfish are hardy and easy to keep in a well-maintained tank. Minimum tank size is 15 gallons, so make sure water changes are frequent in such as small tank. Regular weekly water changes of 1/4 to 1/3 are strongly recommended to keep these fish healthy. Snails can be added as they reduce the algae in the tank, helping to keep it clean.

  • Water Changes: Weekly - Goldfish produce more waste than most other freshwater fish and benefit greatly from more frequent water changes.

Aquarium Setup

Setting up a goldfish aquarium in a manner that will keep your fish happy and healthy is the first step to success. The shape and size of the aquarium is important and depends upon the number of goldfish you are going to keep. These fish need a lot of oxygen and produce a lot of waste. Good filtration, especially biological filtration, is very helpful in maintaining the water quality of the aquarium. A filtration system will remove much of the detritus, excess foods, and waste, which keeps the tank clean and maintains the general health of the goldfish.

  • Tank parameters to consider when choosing a goldfish aquarium:
    • Tank size
      Fifteen gallons is the absolute minimum required to house a Shubunkin Goldfish. It's best to start with a 20 - 30 gallon tank for your first goldfish and then increase the size of the tank by 10 gallons for each additional goldfish. Providing a large amount of water per fish will help dilute the amount of waste and reduce the number of water changes needed.
    • Tank Shape
      Always provide the maximum amount of surface area. A large surface area minimizes the possibility that the goldfish will suffer from an oxygen shortage. Surface area is determined by the shape of the tank. For example an elongated tank offers more surface area (and oxygen) than a tall tank. Oval or round tanks that are wide in the middle and narrower toward the top might be filled less than full to maximize the surface area.
    • Number of fish
      For juveniles a general rule of thumb is 1 inch of fish (2.54 cm) per 1 gallon of water. However, this rule only applies to young fish. Larger gold fish consume much more oxygen than young fish so maintaining this formula for growing fish will stunt them and could contribute to disease and even death.
    • Fish size and growth
      To allow for proper growth, either buy fewer fish than the maximum number or be prepared to get a larger tank. To prevent stunted growth and other health problems, don't overstock the aquarium.

Goldfish are a cold water fish and will do best at temperatures between 65 - 72° F (18°- 22° C). The Shubunkin Goldfish are one of the hardiest varieties of goldfish and can tolerate temperatures a few degrees above freezing, as long as the cooling drops only a few degrees a day. A quick temperature drop can kill them, so if you live in a very cold climate a heater is advisable.

Provide a gravel substrate to help create a natural and comfortable environment for your fish. You can add some decor, but make sure that all ornamentation is smooth with no protruding points or sharp edges. Smooth rocks or driftwood should be used sparingly if at all. Aquarium plants would be the best choice of aquarium decor for goldfish, but unfortunately these fish are diggers. Consequently live plants may be uprooted. Artificial plants make a good substitute and silk plants are safer than plastic ones.

Most aquariums come with a cover that includes lighting. A cover for the tank is desirable as it reduces evaporation, and though they are not prone to jumping, on occasion some goldfish will jump out. Lighting is not essential for goldfish, but does make the aquarium a nice showpiece. Lighting will also help if you have live plants.

  • Minimum Tank Size: 15 gal (57 L) - This fish is very active and very messy. It requires a lot of room to swim in and excellent filtration to keep it healthy.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: Sometimes - A Nano tank is fine as long as it is 15 gallons or more. A larger tank will be needed for a community.
  • Substrate Type: Any - A medium-sized gravel works best.
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 65.0 to 72.0° F (18.3 to 22.2° C)
  • Breeding Temperature: - In the wild, goldfish spawn in the spring when water temperatures reach about 68° F (20° C).
  • Range ph: 6.0-8.0
  • Hardness Range: 5 - 19 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Goldfish are freshwater fish, but they have some tolerance for slightly brackish water. Any salinity for must be kept low, below 10%, a specific gravity of less than 1.002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: All - These fish will swim in all areas of the aquarium.

Social Behaviors

Goldfish are very social animals and thrive in a community. Not only are they a great community fish, but they are great scavengers as well. It is really not necessary to add other scavengers or other bottom feeders to the aquarium when you have goldfish. LIke most fancy goldfish, they will thrive in both freshwater and tropical aquariums as long as there are no aggressive or territorial fish in the tank. Some good tankmates for fancy goldfish are the Chinese Blue Bitterling and the Northern Redbelly Dace.

  • Venomous: No
  • Temperament: Peaceful
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes
    • Peaceful fish (): Safe
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Aggressive (): Threat
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Safe - not aggressive
    • Plants: Threat - Goldfish will eat many kinds of aquatic plants. In their constant search for food, they can end up uprooting plants that they don't eat.

Sex: Sexual differences

During the breeding season, the male has white prickles, called breeding tubercles, on its gill covers and head. Seen from above, a female will have a fatter appearance when she is carrying eggs. It is impossible to sex Goldfish when they are young and not in breeding season, but generally the male is smaller and more slender than the female.

Breeding / Reproduction

Shubunkin Goldfish are egg layers that spawn readily in the right conditions. They can be bred in groups as small as five individuals, but they are very social animals and likely to breed in larger groups as well. The only time Goldfish will spawn in the wild is when spring arrives. To spawn them in the aquarium, you will need to mimic the conditions found in nature.

Provide an aquarium that is at least 20 gallons and make sure the fish are healthy and disease free. Some breeders suggest you treat them for parasites. Many breeders will also separate the males and females for a few weeks prior to breeding to help increase their interest in spawning. Introduce the fish into the breeding tank at the same time. The tank will need a lush environment with solid surfaces for the spawning process and for the eggs to adhere to. Bushy, oxygenating plants, such as Anacharis, work well for this, though artificial plants or fibrous spawning mops can also be used.

To induce spawning, the temperature can be slowly dropped to around 60° F (11° C) and then slowly warmed at a rate of 3° F (2° C) per day until they spawn. Spawning generally begins when the temperatures are between 68° and 74° F (20°-23° C). Feeding lots of high protein food such live brine shrimp and worms during this time will also induce spawning. Feed small amounts three times a day, but don't overfeed. Uneaten scraps will sink to the bottom and foul the water. Maintain the breeding tank with partial water changes of up to about 20% per day.

Before spawning, as the temperature increases, the male will chase the female around the aquarium in a non-aggressive way. This can go on for several days, and the fish will intensify in color. During the spawn, the fish will gyrate from side to side, and the male will push the female against the plants. This stimulates the female to drop tiny eggs which the male will then fertilize. The eggs will adhere by sticky threads to the plants or spawn mop. Spawning can last two or three hours and can produce up to 10,000 eggs.

At this point the parents will start to eat as many eggs as they can find. For this reason, it is best to remove the parents after spawning is complete. The fertilized eggs will hatch in 4 to 7 days, depending on the temperature. You can feed the newly hatched goldfish specialty fry foods until they become big enough to eat flake or brine shrimp, or you can offer the same food as you feed the parents as long as it is crushed very small. At first, the fry are a dark brown or black color in order to better hide and not be eaten by larger fish. They gain their adult color after several months and can be put in with larger fish once they reach about 1 inch long. See Breeding Freshwater Fish - Goldfish for more information on breeding Goldfish.

  • Ease of Breeding: Moderate

Fish Diseases

In properly maintained goldfish aquariums or ponds, goldfish illness is largely preventable. Even so, goldfish illnesses can occur, and if left untreated, may prove fatal. Goldfish are hardy, though, and if treated in a timely manner, most will make a full recovery.

When treating individuals, it is usually best to move the afflicted fish into a separate tank with no gravel or plants and do regular partial water changes. However, if the disease is apparent throughout the main tank, it may be best to do the treatments there. Whether treating in a hospital tank or your main tank, read and follow the manufacturer's instructions for any medication. Some medications can adversely affect the water quality by destroying beneficial bacteria. You may also need to remove the carbon from the filtration system, as carbon will absorb many medications, making the treatment ineffective.

Goldfish diseases are mostly the same as those that afflict other freshwater fish, and the symptoms and treatment of goldfish are also similar. The main types of fish diseases include bacterial infections, fungal infections, parasites, and protozoa. There are also other ailments caused by injury, poor nutrition, or bad water conditions.

One of the more common problems is Ich, which is a protozoan disease. Ich is easy to identify because your fish looks like it is sprinkled with salt. Though Ich is easily treated, like other protozoan diseases, it can be fatal if not caught quickly. Some other protozoan diseases are Costia, which causes a cloudiness of the skin, and Chilodonella, which will cause a blue-white cloudiness on the skin.

External parasites are fairly common, too, but pretty easy to treat and usually not fatal when treated. These include flukes, which are flatworms about 1 mm long with hooks around their mouths. They infest the gills or body of the fish. Another type of parasite is fish lice (Argulus), flattened, mite-like crustaceans about 5 mm long that attach themselves to the body of the goldfish. Lastly, anchor worms look like threads coming out of the fish.

Some bacterial infections include Dropsy, an infection in the kidneys that can be fatal if not treated quickly. Fish Tuberculosis is indicated by the fish becoming emaciated (having a hollow belly). For this illness, there is no absolute treatment, and it can be fatal. Tail/Fin Rot may also be bacterial, though the reduced tail or fins can be caused by a number of factors as well. There is also fungus, a fungal infection, and Black Spot or Black Ich, which is a parasitic infection.

Swim Bladder Disease is an ailment indicated by fish swimming in abnormal patterns and having difficulty maintaining their balance. This can be caused by a number of things: constipation, poor nutrition, a physical deformity, or a parasitic infection. Feeding frozen peas (defrosted) has been noted to help alleviate the symptoms and correct the problem in some cases.

Other miscellaneous ailments include Cloudy Eye, which can be caused by a variety of things ranging from poor nutrition, bad water quality, and rough handling. It can also be the result of other illnesses, such as bacterial infections. Constipation is indicated by a loss of appetite and swelling of the body, and the cause is almost always diet. Then there are wounds and ulcers. Wounds can become infected, creating ulcers. Wounds can develop either bacterial or fungal infections, or both, and must be treated. There are treatments for each of these diseases individually and treatments that handle both. For more in-depth information about goldfish diseases and illnesses, see Goldfish Care; Fancy Goldfish and Goldfish Diseases.


The Shubunkin Goldfish are readily available in fish stores and online, but they sometimes cost a bit more than other fancy goldfish.


Author: David Brough CFS
Lastest Animal Stories on Shubunkin Goldfish

Hou - 2010-07-14
I supply class goldfish and high quality fish. and have full stock now also. welcome to visit our stock seb:
Class goldfish stock: such as: Panda butterfly, 3 color oranda,Purple Oranda with pompoms and so on. welcome to contact me:

  • brandon - 2015-02-25
    Do u sell female shubunkin goldfish
Sami - 2014-10-09
Hey I have a 2 1/2' 9month old London Shubunkin.. We bought him/her in July was sold to us as a 5month old.. We put in into an already established tank with a common goldfish and 9 little/mini red minnows and a few others not sure of there naming.. Basically the Shubunkin was chasing the common yellow goldfish around.. Looked as though he was pushing her/him about... (We changed the tank around before adding our new fish, so the habitat would be different for all of them ) basically after a couple weeks the little ones started dying off ... And we noticed the shubunkin has an abnormal growth under his belly where he poops from.. It's very weird looks like a prolapse?!?! So we bought him a new tank (the nemo ward we call it) and transferred him into the new tank once it was ready (two weeks after it was up and running with filter) the little fish kept dying off ( still not sure if it was because the fish were old and due to natural causes or because of disease..). I tried everything there was no sign of actual disease in the fish and the common goldfish is fine .. I now have two red minnows left in the tank with the common yellow goldfish and the bully shubunkin is in a tank by himself and his behaviour is becoming more alarming.. Rubbing against tank objects.( has now stopped this (haven't seen him do it in a while). Once he moved the filter a good few inches.. And was swimming into the bubbles coming out of the filter for hours when first moved into the tank.. He seemed to settle and now For the last week he has been very scared and jumpy ...What is wrong with him? I follow all the rules that I am aware off water changes .. Cleaning the filter.. General tonic etc .. Please help!! Also he ate a Hong Kong cleaner I put into the tank :( .. I can't keep on watching them die.. I have brought numerous books .. But none have helped ... Please any advice?!?! Ta

  • Clarice Brough - 2014-10-11
    It's really hard to say what's going on, with either of your tanks. Yes, old age could be the culprit for the minnows. I would look at the decor, and make sure I had lots of plants (plastic ones work fine) to help with comfort and security.
Fiona - 2014-09-15
It was Christmas time and i had changed the tank water almost to the brim.i was in another room vaccuuming and when i returned to the loungeroom i saw a small orange bauble on the first thought was it was an ornament that had fallen off the Christmas tree.when i bent down to pick it up i realized it was my spritely little shubunkin that had jumped out of the tank.i brushed him off and quickly returned him to the water.He spent the next few hours at the bottom corner of the tank. I think he had totally freaked himself out.after a while he recovered and was no worse for his little adventure...

RonRon - 2011-01-20
Need some many shubunkin/comet can I put in my 3ft x 1.5ft x 1.5ft tank..? Thanks...

  • Anthony - 2014-07-18
    In your 50 US Gallons you could hold 25.... try 10 and let them breed!
  • Sharon Jones - 2014-07-23
    I think 25 is far too much for that size tank they grow very big I have one in my 90 litre tank and a phelc my shubunkin is about 7" now ...two in there would be too many ...they produce a lot of waste ...there big fish ...Sharon...

Hou - 2010-07-14
I supply class goldfish and high quality fish. and have full stock now also. welcome to visit our stock seb:
Class goldfish stock: such as: Panda butterfly, 3 color oranda,Purple Oranda with pompoms and so on. welcome to contact me:

  • brandon - 2015-02-25
    Do u sell female shubunkin goldfish