Altum Angelfish

Orinoco Angelfish, Altum Angel, Deep Angelfish

Family: Cichlidae Altum Angelfish, Pterophyllum altum, Orinoco Angelfish, Deep AngelfishPterophyllum altumPhoto © Animal-World: Courtesy David Brough
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I am getting my hands on Wild Altum Angelfish next month. I read so-many forums before i ordered. But now I would like to get information on Quarantine medications... (more)  Varma

The Altum Angelfish is very pretty and peaceful cichlid, despite its large size!

The Altum Angelfish Pterophyllum altum is the largest of the three described angelfish species. They measure about 7 inches (18 cm) in length but are very tall, with  extensive fins reaching up to around 9" (20 cm) in height. Although larger than its close and well known relative, the common Silver Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, this disk shaped cichlid is very elegant and graceful. It is also known as the Orinoco Angelfish, Atlum Angel, and Deep Angelfish.

P. altum is distinguished from the other angelfish species by having a "notch" on the upper part of its snout rather than a more flat or slightly rounded forehead as on the other two species. In color and pattern it is very similar with a silver colored body and dark bars that are brownish/red. The fins can show red striations and adults may have some red spots and a blue-green cast to the dorsal fin. When aroused they will exhibit a black spot on the gill cover. Overall color differences can often be subtle, but all true P. altum will have the notch above the nares.

In the past it was only possible to obtain wild caught specimens of this fish. This was due to a high mortality rate which for years  made the fish practically impossible to breed. More recently however, it has been successfully bred by some hobbyists and captive bred specimens are now occasionally available as well as wild caught. There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare and called the "Orinoco Altum". These hybrids may or may not show the notched trait of the true species, or may have it to a lesser degree.

The Altum is considered the most peaceful of all angelfish species. It is a bit timid however, and can be frightened by shadows and fast movements. This is especially true when first acquired, but once acclimated it is a friendly and personable fish. This angelfish is considered a community fish, but as a cichlid may not be as sociable with smaller fish. They will school peacefully when they are young, but tend to pair off and become more territorial when they are older.

They are moderately difficult to keep as they have more stringent requirements than the common angelfish. They need enough room to accommodate their size and swim freely. A 55 gallon tank would be the suggested minimum, but if you are keeping a pair or keeping them in a community, the tank will need to be larger. They will feel most at home and comfortable in a warmer aquarium that has roots and some rocks to offer places of refuge. They also like hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter, keeping an open area in the center for swimming.

For Information on keeping freshwater fish, see:
Freshwater Aquarium Guide: Aquarium Setup and Care


Geographic Distribution
Pterophyllum altum
Data provided by FishBase.org
  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Actinopterygii
  • Order: Perciformes
  • Family: Cichlidae
  • Genus: Pterophyllum
  • Species: altum
Freshwater Angelfish

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A Brief Introduction - two kinds of angelfish available to aquarists.

Freshwater Angelfish belong to the Cichlid family of fishes. This video is intended to give a brief introduction to the two kinds of angelfish available to aquarists. Both are a beautiful addition to the freshwater aquarium. The common angelfish (Pterophylum scalare) has been bred into many different color varieties. All the Altum angelfish look mostly the same and is harder to find, since mostly wild caught specimens are sold. The Altum angelfish is also a unique and beautiful specimen for your freshwater aquarium.

Altum Angelfish - Quick Aquarium Care
  • Size of fish - inches: 15.8 inches (40.01 cm)
  • Minimum Tank Size: 55 gal (208 L)
  • Temperament: Semi-aggressive
  • Aquarium Hardiness: Moderately hardy
  • Temperature: 78.0 to 84.0° F (25.6 to 28.9° C)
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Intermediate
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Habitat: Distribution / Background

The Altum Angelfish Pterophyllum altum was described by Pellegrin in 1903. They are found in rivers in South America; the Amazon River basin in the upper Negro River drainage and the Orinoco River basin in tributaries of the upper Orinoco River (Inírida and Atabapo rivers) to Puerto Ayacucho. Other common names they are known by are Orinoco Angelfish, Altum Angel, and Deep Angelfish.

In the wild these cichlids live in river watersheds and flood plains where there are moderate amounts of water flow, submerged tree and plant roots, and underwater vegetation. They are more frequently found in very soft and well oxygenated waters. As omnivores they feed on smaller fish and invertebrates as well as eating food particles in the water.

The Angelfish species are an attractive and graceful group of fish. Besides the Altum Angelfish, there are two other recognized species in the Pterophyllum genera. There are also thought to be several undescribed species. The other two described species are:

  • Silver Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare
    The common Angelfish sold today is generally considered to be a hybrid of Pterophyllum scalare, however, this may not be the case. Forms of Angelfish found in the wild have become fixed forms by captive inbreeding. The common Angelfish has historically been referred to as Pterophyllum scalare because this angelfish proved to be the hardiest and easiest to breed in captivity.

  • Leopold's Angel Pterophyllum leopoldi
    The Leopold's Angel must be imported to America and is fairly rare. Visually it appears very similar to the common Angelfish, but displays slightly different black bar patterning. It has a few vertical dark body bars, but is distinguished by a black blotch at the base of the dorsal final that doesn't extend into a full bar.
  • Scientific Name: Pterophyllum altum
  • Social Grouping: Pairs - When younger, they will tend to swim in larger groups but tend to pair off once they reach full maturity
  • IUCN Red List: NE - Not Evaluated or not listed

Description

The Altum Angelfish is very similar to the wild form of the other angelfish species. But It is larger both in length and in height. It generally reaches about 7 inches (18 cm) in length and is about 9 inches (20 cm) in height from the tip of the dorsal fin to the tip of the anal fin. There are some reported anomalies of wild specimens reaching up to 19.6 inches (50 cm) in height and some aquarium specimens said to reach over 15.75 inches (40 cm) in height.

The body is laterally compressed with a distinctive diamond shape and steep forehead with a a "notch" on the upper part of its snout, just above the nares, and a steeply rising forehead. They have oversized extended dorsal and anal fins which, along with the tail fin, tend to be very long and flowing. In mature fish the tail fin can develop streamers on the outside corners. The Pelvic (ventral) fins are also very long and delicate. They can have a lifespan of 10 -15 years when properly cared for in a well maintained aquarium.

The body presents a general silver coloration which may be accented with a greenish tint. Three broad dark brownish/redish bars run vertically along the body in addition to some less prounounced and fainter bars. The fins can show red striations and adults may have some red spots and a blue-green cast to the dorsal fin. When aroused they will exhibit a black spot on the gill cover.

There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare and called the "Orinoco Altum". These hybrids may or may not show the notched trait of the true species, or may have it to a lesser degree.

  • Size of fish - inches: 15.8 inches (40.01 cm) - The Altum Angelfish generally reaches a length of about 7 inches (18 cm) in the aquarium, with a height of up to about 8.87 inches (20 cm) from the tip of the dorsal fin to the tip of the anal fin. However there are reports of their height reaching up to 19.6 inches (50 cm) in the wild, and specimens in the aquarium have reportedly been grown to heights of over 15.75 inches (40 cm).
  • Lifespan: 15 years

Fish Keeping Difficulty

The Angelfish are one of the best known of all tropical fish and many try to start off with thses fish.  The Altum Angelfish can be very challenging to keep and is a poor choice for beginner fish keepers.  They are prone to hole in head disease, have trouble dealing with nitrates and are susceptible to stress related diseases.  In addition, they also are sensitive to water conditions and need very acidic and soft water and can be very difficult to feed.

  • Aquarium Hardiness: Moderately hardy
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Intermediate

Foods and Feeding

Since they are omnivorous, the Altum Angelfish will generally eat all kinds of live, fresh, and flake foods. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat. You can even feed them lettuce or spinach. Feed mosquito larvae very sparingly as they will tend to over eat it. Overeating can result in a buildup of fats, which results in inactivity and could kill them.

  • Diet Type: Omnivore
  • Flake Food: Yes
  • Tablet Pellet: Yes
  • Live foods (fishes, shrimps, worms): Some of Diet
  • Vegetable Food: Some of Diet
  • Meaty Food: Some of Diet
  • Feeding Frequency: Several feedings per day

Aquarium Care

The Atlum Angel needs a strict water change regiment of at least 25% every week.  The Angel is very sensitive to water fluctuation so make sure to test any water going back into the tank.  The water needs to be soft for 0-5dH.  Make sure when doing water changes to carefully vacuum the substrate throughly.  Take great care when cleaning the tank and changing the water to not cause unwarranted or excess stress to the fish as they are prone to stress related diseases.

  • Water Changes: Weekly

Aquarium Setup

A minimum 55 gallon aquarium is okay for a single fish, though a larger tank would be suggested if keeping more or keeping them in a community. They need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. As they come from a natural environment with soft, well oxygenated water it is recommended to provide peat-filtered water.

Provide a warmer aquarium that has roots and some rocks to offer places of refuge. They also like hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter, keeping an open area in the center for swimming. They prefer subdued lighting. These fish do not burrow and will not damage plants as much as other cichlids.

The Altum Angelfish is more sensitive to its water conditions than the common angelfish, so is suggested for an aquarist with some fish keeping experience. It can be rewarding to keep for aquarists who are observant and diligent in providing care.

  • Minimum Tank Size: 55 gal (208 L)
  • Substrate Type: Any
  • Lighting Needs: Low - subdued lighting
  • Temperature: 78.0 to 84.0° F (25.6 to 28.9° C)
  • Breeding Temperature: - 86 - 87.8° F (30 - 31 ° C)
  • Range ph: 4.5-5.8
  • Hardness Range: 2 - 10 dGH
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: All

Social Behaviors

PIcture of Freshwater Angelfish, Silver Angelfish
"Silver" Angelfish Photo © Animal-World

Though they are considered a community fish, Altum Angelfish may become territorial as they grow older. They are reportedly a more peaceful fish than other angelfish species, but being in the cichlid family smaller fish may not do well with them. As they mature they will pair off, developing a strong nuclear family, and defend a territory in which to breed. A nice thing about the Altum Angelfish is that they don't burrow or disturb plants!

  • Temperament: Semi-aggressive
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes
    • Peaceful fish (): Monitor - Larger fish are best as the angel will try to eat anything small enough to fit in its mouth.
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Monitor
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: May be aggressive
    • Plants: Safe

Sex: Sexual differences

There are no distinguishable differences except in breeding season, then the papilla on the male is pointed and on the female is blunt.

Breeding / Reproduction

The Altum Angelfish is a difficult fish to breed. For years it was considered impossible to breed. More recently it has been successfully bred by some hobbyists and captive bred specimens are now occasionally available. There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare called the "Orinoco Altum". The characteristic "notched" nose of the pure blooded fish may or may not present in the hybrid version, or it may simply appear less pronounced.

These fish are egg layers and form nuclear families. These egg layers are open breeders that prefer to spawn on submerged roots and tree branches in the wild. They are difficult to sex, so it's best to start with a small school of about 4 - 8 fish and let them establish pairs.

The pair will need very clean water and need to be conditioned to spawn. Supplement their current diet with foods rich in protein, but still be sure to not overfeed them. The breeding water should be soft, acidic, and warm. Have a pH between 5.8 - 6.2. hardness at 1 - 5° dGH, and temperatures between 86 - 87.8° F (30 - 31 ° C). The males sometimes make a loud grating sound with their jaws when mating.

The female will lay between a few hundred to over 1000 eggs on carefully cleaned leaves and the male will follow and fertilize them. If the parents don't eat the eggs, the larvae and fry are carefully guarded. The eggs will hatch in a few days and the fry will be free swimming in a week. The parents will swimming with a shoal of fry in tow. The fry can be fed newly hatched brine shrimp for the first week or two. For more information, see the general description of how to breed Cichlids in: Breeding Freshwater Fish: Cichlids.

  • Ease of Breeding: Difficult

Fish Diseases

Altum Angelfish are susceptible to typical fish ailments, especially if water is stale and of poor quality and oxygenation. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days. If that does not cure the Ich, then the fish needs to be treated with copper (remove any water conditioners). Several copper based fish medications are available for Ich. Copper use must be kept within the proper levels, so be sure to follow the manufacturers suggestions. A copper test also can be used to keep the proper levels. You can also combine increasing the temperature with an Ich medication treatment. Intestinal disease can be treated with metronidazol.

As with most fish Angelfish are prone to skin flukes and other parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.), fungal infections, and bacterial infections. It is recommended to read up on the common tank diseases. Knowing the signs and catching and treating them early makes a huge difference. For information about freshwater fish diseases and illnesses, see Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments.

Remember anything you add to your tank can bring disease to your tank. Not only other fish but plants, substrate, and decorations can harbor bacteria. Take great care and make sure to properly clean or quarantine anything that you add to an established tank so not to upset the balance.

Availability

The Altum Angelfish or Orinoco Angelfish have recently become more frequently imported, and so are regularly available online and in fish stores. They are moderately expensive and more costly than the common Angelfish. There are also hybrids being developed by crossing the P. altum with P. scalare. They are called the "Orinoco Altum" and are occasionally available, but usually more costly.

References

Author: Clarice Brough CFS, David Brough CFS' Jeremy Roche
Lastest Animal Stories on Altum Angelfish

Varma - 2014-06-12
I am getting my hands on Wild Altum Angelfish next month. I read so-many forums before i ordered. But now I would like to get information on Quarantine medications for Wild altums. If you are altum hobbyist at any point please reply. if not please do not suggest as This fish needs experience not theories.

  • Anonymous - 2014-06-27
    Well that is exciting! We got our Altum from a wholesaler, gosh back in the late 90's, and it was very hardy. It had it's own tank initially, but didn't need any medication as it acclimated well. We then moved it into a fairly large community tank and it continued to do just awesome.
Reply
spencer - 2010-11-20
I kept 5 altum angelfishes and 2 hujeta gars in a planted aquarium but now all the plants, angelfishes and gars are all dead. However, this website is tempting me to keep altums again. Love this website as it tempts you to keep a certain type of fish.

Reply
david - 2011-06-12
Are Rams compatible with Heckel Discus, Altum (wild) Angelfish, and Black Ghost Knifefish? How about with Silver Dollars?

  • Charlie Roche - 2011-06-13
    The Knifefish needs a minimum of a 100 gallon tank on his own. They are beautiful but they get huge and he will most likely eat the others.
  • cody - 2013-02-24
    The angel fish isn't recommended but you may try with a knife fish all depends on you tank size to oh and for the discus. Alot of people may tell you to keep them in a single species tank and they need different water phlevels in their tank.
Reply
Candy Zucksworth - 2013-02-03
I have 2 angel fish. They are both the same size. They hang around together all the time. Now the black one is chasing the other one all the time. It's in the corner all the time. I have a 30 gallon tank. Should I get a couple more angels? Don't know why it started picking on it. Should I just take one out and the black one can be by itself? Don't know what to do.

  • Clarice Brough - 2013-02-06
    Angelfish become aggressive towards each other as they mature. They establishing a pecking order and the tank needs to be large enough for each to have its own territory. These fish are best kept alone, as a bonded pair, or in a larger group of 4 or more. There's no way to tell whether the aggression will escalate or not, but keep a close eye on them. If injuries occur, then they will need to be separated. Your tank really isn't large enough to house a group.
Reply
Sara - 2012-09-22
I have an angel fish and tetra in a 35 gallon tank. About 6-12 months ago they stopped eating and didn't swim around as much as usual. I changed the filter and some of the water and they were fine after that. This time it isn't working; they started to swim around normally for one day (still didn't eat) and then it was back to quiet. There was no other signs of disease. I just moved the fish into a smaller tank in another room so I can completely clean out the big tank and when I did so, I noticed what looks like a small film in its eyes that I didn't see before, although I had checked the fish over carefully. Don't know if it's a new symptom, whether it's supposed to be there, or whether I just couldn't see it in the other room. I'm not sure how to treat this fish.

  • Sara - 2012-09-22
    Oh yes, I forgot to add that I had the water tested at a local pet shop. The PH seemed a little high and I lowered it, following the instructions of the pet shop exactly, but it didn't make any difference.
Reply

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