Horse Care, Alternative Therapies

June 16, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Horses

Horse Care for a healthy equineCaring for horses has come a long way!
World War I poster in the Library of Congress.
Photo Wikimedia Commons, Courtesy chreck, Horst, 1885, Public domain

Alternative Therapies: Good for You, Great for Your Horse!

There is little doubt that alternative therapies are on-trend and what these can do for human health has also opened up a wealth of possibilities and opportunities to provide equine alternative therapies in the form of acupuncture, Rolfing, herbal remedies and homeopathic solutions, amongst an ever-widening range of options.

Here is a look at some of the alternative therapies that you may want to consider for your horse and remember to take proper veterinary advice, especially when you consider that many of these treatments are designed to complement veterinary care rather than replace it entirely.

Acupuncture

The Chinese have been practicing acupuncture on humans and horses for thousands of years and the premise is that by stimulating specific points on the body, you can generate beneficial effects by tapping into the currents of energy that flow through the body pathways that are called meridians.

The conventional Western view of this alternative therapy is that acupuncture stimulates the nervous system and causes the release of body chemicals including endorphins, which help to ease pain, improve circulation and promote the reduction of muscle spasms.

It should always be remembered that if your horse is sick or badly injured then your medical priority is to seek veterinary help first and foremost, but treatment using acupuncture may well produce some noticeable improvements in the recovery process and ease the level of pain being felt.

Look to see if there is a noticeable improvement in the horse’s condition after about four sessions of acupuncture and review your position at this point to see whether you want to continue with this particular alternative therapy or look at other options if you are not noticing any benefits.

Rolfing

If you are not familiar with Rolfing, it can also be referred to as structural integration and is in many ways, a fusion of massage and chiropractic methods which is performed by a certified Rolfer and licensed equine massage therapist.

The process involves manual manipulation of soft tissue with the aim of seeking to rebalance the horse’s structure, working with the tissues that pull on bones and joints, which is where the focus is different from a Chiropractic approach.

Rolfing was a method developed for people about 50 years ago and works on the theory that the body compensates for tension and injuries in a way that pulls the natural physical structure out of line, and using various parts of their hand and even their elbows, the Rolfer aims to free the connective tissue and allow the body to align.

You can actually see physical signs of the horse responding to this treatment as they may chew, yawn, shake their head or jiggle around during the session, which are all positive signs of tension release. Between three and five sessions of Rolfing should be sufficient in order to address most issues and if you are unsure, perhaps ask the practitioner whether you can watch a session before booking treatment for your horse.

Alternative medicine

The key to using alternative medicine in addition to things like Natural Horse Supplements is to consider the health of the animal in its entirety rather than focusing attention on one specific area such as an injured limb.

Alternative medicine is a wide-ranging term that describes holistic practices that rely on medications and the use of syringes and will involve treatments using chiropractic methods, acupuncture, herbalism and homeopathy amongst various different modes of treatment.

A common issue with horses is lameness and this condition is a good example of how alternative medicine can be used to help the animal back to a full recovery in a more natural way. There are many different facets of lameness and it can often have a domino effect in triggering other ailments as a result of the original problem causing pain and discomfort. For example, if a horse is found to have arthritis in the hock, this will cause a change in movement that then becomes muscle soreness in the lower back, which in turn can cause the horse to shift its weight unnaturally which will further compound the injuries that they are suffering from.

Many of the horse owners and practitioners who advocate the use of alternative medicine and view a holistic approach to healing in a positive way, also understand and adopt the principle that conventional medicine or alternative medicine could fix the problem eventually on their own, but when the two forces are combined, this makes for a potentially powerful force that can help your horse quickly and efficiently return to full health.

Contributing author Misty Easley is a highly experienced veterinarian. When not treating her patients, she spends her time researching emerging research and trends in the vet medicine.

Red-tailed Catfish, gorgeous and enormous on Animal-World

June 12, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Aquariums, Freshwater fish

Red-tailed Catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus

The Red-tailed Catfish is unmistakable with its red tail, long whiskers, and monster fish size!

A fascinating fish that’s enormous in size, the Red-tailed Catfish will surely catch your eye… and its awesome good looks will keep you coming back!

In perfect harmony, its bright white sides topped with a dark spotted gray back contrast nicely with its bright red tail. Adding to its charm is a huge mouth with long trailing whiskers. This is probably one of the most outstanding catfish ever seen.

The Redtail Catfish is a predator that silently dwells at the bottom of deep river pools. It is slow moving, but it uses this as a stealth tactic along with a well-developed chemosensory ability, to capture unsuspecting prey. Yet despite its size and huge shovel-like mouth, it is a very peaceful fish in the aquarium. Peaceful that is, if you don’t fit in its mouth! It gets along quite fine with tank-mates that are similar in size and demeanor, just the little guys are at risk.

Despite its good looks it is a huge fish. It will normally reach up to about 4 1/2 feet, but in the wild it is documented at almost 6 feet in length. Its size makes its a favorite game fish, and angler’s love it. But for the aquarist, well it is simply too big for the home aquarium. This monster fish is best enjoyed at a public aquarium unless you can provide a tank of 1000 gallons or more and lots of food for the next 20 years!

Learn more about this outstanding catfish on Animal-World.com. Pictures and information for the Red-tailed Catfish Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, along with it habitat, behaviors, and aquarium care!

Clarice Brough is a team member at Animal-World and has contributed many articles and write-ups.

Celebrate World Oceans Day 2014!

Join in celebration of the World Oceans Day 2014 this Sunday, June 8th!

Did you know that 71% of our beautiful earth is covered by ocean? We human land dwelling creatures only live on 29% of the earth while the oceans cover almost 3/4 of the planet. Yet almost 95% of the world’s oceans are still unexplored.

This vast watery world is teeming with life and is vital to the health and well being of the earth. The oceans play a role in many of the earth’s systems including regulating our climate and weather, generating most of the oxygen we breathe, and cleaning the water we drink. They also help feed us and offer a plethora of potential medicines.

See interesting Ocean animalsAnimal-World Celebrates World Oceans Day 2014!

Join us in celebrating the oceans, they are beautiful to behold and provide us with unlimited inspiration. And they also offer us opportunities for a better world. According to NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the US Department of Commerce, one out of every six jobs in the United states is marine-related.

Here’s a few ways you can participate:

  1. The Ocean Project and World Ocean Network have created a site dedicated to World Oceans Day. They have a list of more than 600 events being held worldwide.
  2. The World Oceans Day website also encourages support through donations or with the purchase of a t-shirt or bracelet commemorating this day.
  3. Better yet, people are encouraged to spread the word by creating a “selfie for the sea!” It’s easy to participate, simply take a photo of your self doing something for the ocean, or making a promise to help the ocean. Then share it on Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites and tag it #WorldOceansDay.

Clarice Brough is a team member at Animal-World and has contributed many articles and write-ups.

Nano Tank Stocking Guide for Reef, Saltwater and Freshwater Aquariums

Find live fish, plants and corals

Fish Selection Guide for Nano Tanks

10+ general rules for stocking the nano aquarium. For the best success, follow these suggestions when you are selecting fish for the nano aquarium, whether you plan on keeping a freshwater, saltwater, or a mini-reef tank.

Considering the nano tank’s small size, the first and most important rule when stocking your tank, is to avoid overpopulation. This rule refers not only to the number of fish you put in your tank but also the other life forms that are present. These include invertebrates like worms, clams, snails; echinoderms such as a starfish, sea urchin, or sea cucumber; crustaceans like crabs, lobsters and shrimp; other bottom feeders and even corals.

Here are some general rules on stocking your nano tank:

  1. Avoid putting in schooling fish since most species will not allow other fish species in the nano aquarium. There are also fish species that should be housed as the only fish in a nano tank. These include dottybacks, angelfishes, and hawkfishes.
  2. In nano reeftanks smaller than 20 gallons, it is not recommended to add even one Clownfish, not even a small one since it can grow big. Clownfish are territorial and will want to own the entire tank and will chase away and/or bully other fish species in the tank.
  3. Choose fish species that are not jumpers. Fish belong inside the tank and not on your floor. If you do select a “jumper”, make sure to put a tight-fitting cover over your tank to prevent your fish from jumping out.
  4. Know what your fish feeds on. You might end up placing a fish in your nano tank that feed on shrimp, snails, and other tank inhabitants. There are also herbivorous fish that thrive well on a bit of microalgae and broccoli, as well as frozen or flake fish food that contain spirulina. Knowing what their feeding habits are can ensure that you are able to meet their nutritional needs.
  5. Don’t mix fish of different behaviors—aggressive versus smaller and shy ones. The smaller fish species will be outcompeted for food resulting in starvation. Other factors that should also be considered include the adult size and temperament of the fish.
  6. Fish species with similar feeding habits may also cause a problem for each other, as they compete for food.
  7. When buying fish at the local fish store, ask the staff to show you that the fish you are interested in is eating. Find out what type of feed is being given so you can continue the same feeding regimen when you bring the fish home. If the fish is not eating, it is best not to buy it.
  8. When buying fish, observe its overall appearance. Don’t buy fish with a sunken belly since this is an indication that the fish is on a starvation diet. Buy only healthy-looking ones.
  9. For nano reef tanks, avoid buying fish that will nibble or pick at corals. Constant picking may cause injury that can easily get infected, or prevent coral from opening up.
  10. When picking out fish, select based on the display area volume of the tank, not the total tank volume. This is attributed to the fact that the display area of nano tanks holds less water than the total tank since some of the tank water is in the filtration area.
  11. Other equally important factors that you should consider when selecting fish for your nano tank include water quality and habitat selection.

About the author: Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides excellent online aquarium supplies for hobbyists to build their own betta fish tanks,
nano tanks, fish ponds, freshwater shrimp tanks and other DIY aquarium tanks.

Nano Tank Setup Tips for a Great Miniature Aquarium

May 30, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Aquariums

Nano aquariums and supplies

Tips to start and maintain nano tanks.

Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned aquarist, maintaining a nano aquarium is definitely a rewarding undertaking.

A nano aquarium usually refers to a tank that is 10 gallons or less. Most of the guidelines and equipment needed for setting up a larger aquarium also applies to a nano aquarium.

Here are some useful tips to setting up and maintaining a nano tank:

Purchasing a Nano Aquarium

Before making a purchase, decide what you eventually want to achieve with your nano tank. Will it serve as a grow-out tank? Are you aiming for a display tank that will make a good conversation piece in your home or office? Will you be having a plant or shrimp farm? Once you already know what you want, you can now purchase your nano tank.

Aquarium Substrate

Substrate is an important component in a planted aquarium. It is recommended to purchase the best substrate that is available. A good substrate should be rich in minerals like carbon and iron. It must be capable of softening the water and lowering pH.

Choose a substrate that has a finer grain. Since this type of substrate is more expensive than the ordinary ones, you can just add a top layer of fine-grained substrate to the bottom layer before adding water. Using lava rock, pumice, or sintered clay balls in the bottom layer can promote oxygenation and prevent creating an anaerobic environment within the substrate.

Choosing a Theme

To make it easier to keep the ideal water parameters indicated for all the inhabitants of your tank, it is best to focus your aquascaping and stock plants around them, including their shelter and breeding structures.

Avoid Overpopulation

With the nano tank’s small size, maintaining an ideal population in your aquarium will help maintain good water quality. When establishing a new system, it is best to introduce only a few fish at a time over a period of several weeks. Select the smallest fish species that you can find, and a modest group of bottom cleaners.

Nano Tank Filtration

Consider using live plants and special forms of gravel for freshwater nano tanks, and live rock or sand for your nano reef. These can help promote tank health coupled with minimum use of external filtration systems.

Water Quality

Since nano tanks have accelerated cycles in water quality, daily testing and observation are highly recommended. The behavior of the fish inhabitants—hiding, drifting, gasping, or darting—is also a good indication of existing health dangers that lurk inside the tank.

Frequent partial water changes (at least 10-20%) once a week, also promote a healthy tank environment. This is especially necessary if you are pushing the population limit, or keeping fish species with larger bio-loads.

Tank Filter System

Filter media should be changed frequently to prevent algal bloom and ensure the well-being of your fish.

Troubleshooting

With the small enclosed ecosystem in a nano tank, small problems can easily worsen in a short span of time, and may threaten the health of your aquarium inhabitants. Whenever you notice something out of the ordinary, such as nitrite level that tested high or a bio-wheel that has stopped turning, act on it the soonest possible time.

About the author: Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides excellent online aquarium supplies for hobbyists to build their own betta fish tanks,
nano tanks, fish ponds, freshwater shrimp tanks and other DIY aquarium tanks.

Snow Leopards, Elegant Asian Mountain Cats

See more interesting animalsSnow Leopard, Uncia uncia.
Photo Courtesy Jaro at Jo Company of Dublin, Ireland

Tracing the tracks of Snow Leopards in the alpine mountains.

Gorgeous and hushed as snowfall, the Snow Leopard is known all over the globe for its beauty and intangible behavior. The white-gray coat with black spots combines perfectly with the rocky mountains of Central and South Asia.

These wild cats love this kind of natural habitat. It offers them good cover to stay out of sight while hunting. Moreover, they are highly adapted to the harsh and arid climate of the mountains.

Some amazing facts about Snow Leopards:

Snow Leopard, Uncia unciaPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Bernard Landgraf, GNU Free Documentation License
  1. Like most wild cats, this magnificent mountain cat hunts at night. The most common creatures killed by these cats are wild goats, deer, pikas, markhor, game birds, rodents and hares.
  2. The Snow Leopard is scientifically dubbed as Uncia uncia.
  3. They are found at elevations as high as 9800 feet above sea level.
  4. These are the most mystical among wild cats. They have a stunning coat with black rosettes that helps them in disguise.
  5. These cats weigh from 30-55 kg, and the length of the tail measures from 80-135cm.
  6. They are considered excellent jumpers and bear a resemblance to leopards.
  7. Their paws are large and covered with fur, which protects them from getting injuries.
  8. The gestation period of a female is about 90 to 110 days.
  9. They can live up to 18 years, though some have been known to live up to 21 years.

Why Snow Leopards are endangered

This wild cat’s numbers are gradually declining, with its population in the wild estimated at around 6000. According to the International Union for the conservation of Nature and Natural resources they are listed as an endangered species.

There are a number of reasons why they are in danger, but humans are the biggest threat to Snow Leopards. They hunt them for fur, pelt and bones. Many people are found wearing coats and hats made from leopard skin, while on the other hand, the Chinese use their bones in medicines. Not only this, humans also cause immense damage to their habitats and food sources.

When there is no or limited prey left in the wild, they are forced to venture out of their designated habit into human settlements where they start killing and eating the farm animals of villagers, such as goats and sheep. In response the local people kill these straying cats to save their stock.

Cites, another respected organization, puts a lot of effort into discovering creatures that could be in trouble. It protects the endangered species and forbids trade of animal species or their body parts.

Saving them from extinction

The Snow Leopard was first listed as an endangered species in the year 1972 and since then its population has been on the decline. The very old and respected Snow Leopard Trust works exclusively to save the endangered cat and its home. Right now the trust focuses its attempts in countries like Kyrgyzstan, India, Pakistan, China and Mongolia. It raises money through fundraising events, donations and by selling products online, and is maintained by the other organizations.

There are many organizations working together to make important contributions to the conservation of the endangered Snow Leopard. Conservation groups in many countries where these wild cats survive are working with the farmers to help improve the situation and minimize the problem of human-snow leopard conflicts. The herders and farmers have been taught how to protect their livestock areas against these creatures.

Where Snow Leopards Live

One can witness these top predators in the Himalayan Mountains of Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and Bhutan. The likelihood of encountering one of these wild cats seems like a fancy dream. Spotting it in its high, overwhelming habitat will be a real reward for anyone.

On a tour to India, don’t miss out on visiting the famous Hemis National Park where snow leopards are found. Some of other renowned national parks are Khunjerab National park, Pakistan; Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal; Katun Nature Reserve, Russia and Sarychat- Ertah State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan.

The existence of this elusive animal is significant as it signifies the health of the surroundings and the preservation of the snow leopard cannot be successful without the help and support of the local people. Make an effort to protect the wild cat, “Uncia uncia“, and its habitat. They need your love!

Contributing author Tanmay Sharma is a wildlife admirer and very passionate about wildlife tourism.

Is Your Betta sick? Here’s What to Do

Siamese Fighting FishSiamese Fighting Fish

Betta Fish Care: Lists of Symptoms, Diseases and Cures.

Betta fish, also known as Siamese Fighting Fish, originated from small ponds and rivers of Thailand and Cambodia. They are primarily carnivorous surface feeders and can live up to four years in captivity.

Poor water quality inside their tank increases their susceptibility to important diseases. Like any other species of fish, their health is closely linked with the existing conditions in their environment. To keep your Betta healthy, you should make it a point to check the tank’s conditions frequently, coupled with regular cleaning and intensive care.

The Betta can suffer from various health problems caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and parasites. Distinct symptoms are often manifested and should give you a clue there is something wrong with your fish which needs to be addressed as soon as possible.

Disease Condition Cause Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Remarks
Fuzz Fungus (Saprolegnia sp. and Achlya sp.) White fluffy appearance on the body, and may include small gray tufts on the fin areas
  • Spot treatment with gentian violet, methylene blue, iodine and povidone
  • Aquarium salt
  • Potassium permanganate can be made into a paste and applied over the infected area
  • Aquarium fungicide can be used in serious cases
Usually an opportunistic infection that attacks immune-compromised fish recovering from another disease, subjected to a lot of stress, or has been exposed to poor water conditions for quite a long time.
Fin Rot or Tail Rot Bacteria
  • The Betta’s tail seems to be getting shorter and shorter, or they may seem to be falling apart and dissolving
  • A dark reddish color may be present on the edge of the fins or tail
  • Fins may be clumped
  • Color may be pale
  • Spot treatment of infected areas with Gentian violet, tetracycline or ampicillin
  • To help with osmoregulation, mix 1 tablespoon of aquarium salt for each 5 gallons of water
  • Frequent water changes
  • Predisposing factors include poor water quality or fin injury
  • Frequently followed by a secondary fungal infection
  • Affected fins and tails will grow back however these may not have the same color or may not be as long
Swim Bladder Disease Bacteria
  • Abnormal swimming patterns
  • Loss of balance, may float vertically at the top of the water or lie on the tank bottom
  • Treat with antibiotic in a clean, shallow tank-Fasting for 24-48 hours, and offer a pea the following day
  • Frequent water change
  • Predisposing Factors include physical injury to the swim bladder due to fighting or during transportation from the fish store
  • poor water quality
  • overfeeding
  • rough handling
  • Double Tail Bettas are more prone to the condition due to their shorter bodies
Ick (also known as Ich or White Spot) Parasite (Ichthyopthirius sp.)
  • The affected fish may appear as if it has been sprinkled with salt.
  • Less active
  • Loss of appetite
  • Clamped fins
  • May scratch on any object including rocks, plants, etc.
  • Commercial ick medications that contain formalin or malachite green
  • Increase the temperature of the tank water to 30° C (85° F)
  • Full water change
  • Very contagious
  • The parasite is sensitive to heat, thus raising the tank’s temperature causes the parasites to detach from the fish and swim in the medicated water

There are all sorts of things that can affect the health of your fish. The most common illnesses are usually bacterial or parasitic, sometimes fungal diseases, and on occasion physical ailments. Learn about all types of maladies on our extensive Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments page.

Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides a wide selection of live aquatic plants, aquarium decorations and http://www.justaquatic.com.au/shop/build-your-aquarium/betta-fish-tanks/
betta fish tanks and supplies.

Animal Love, adorable but contagious!

May 8, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Animal News, Featured Pets

Goldfish TypesPhoto courtesy David Brough

Watch out! Love in the animal world is going around… and it’s catching!

Mild symptoms of contagion might just be a smile on your face, but in worst case scenarios you may experience uncontrollable laughing, or even guffawing. And smiles, too, are contagious to other people!

Being an animal lover, however, is perhaps one of the best epidemics imaginable!

Animals and pets are good for your mind, good for your body, and good for your spirit. Studies have shown that keeping pets relieves depression, improves marriages, and kids with pets tend to function better. Caring for a pet also helps lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and improves heart function!

Cuddling releases serotonin and oxytocin, which can help improve our moods and fight depression. Smiling makes us look more attractive, feel younger, and adds years to our lives. It also releases endorphins, natural pain killers, and serotonin, which all together relieve stress and make us feel good.

The animal world is such an important part of human life! A synergy between people and animals has existed for thousands of years and has been crucial to the development of the human species. Throughout history the interconnection with animal life has helped humans learn and adapt, and become the most dominant life force on planet Earth.

So with all this animal love going around, make way for happiness! Embrace the animal world, get the contagion, and have an awesome life!

Kissing a pig!

Little boy kissing a pig at the Redneck Petting Zoo.

“I am fond of pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals.” – Winston Churchill

Kissing Fischer’s Lovebirds

“Animals are reliable, many full of love, true in their affections, predictable in their actions, grateful and loyal. Difficult standards for people to live up to.” – Alfred A. Montapert

Fischer's LovebirdsPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Peter Bekesi

Kissing a camel!

Man kissing a camel near a Sphinx in Cairo.

Everybody knows how to love a dog… but how about a camel? "It is just like man’s vanity and impertinence to call an animal dumb, because it is dumb to his dull perceptions." – Mark Twain

Man kissing a camel near a Sphinx in CairoPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy David Dennis

Kissing Prairie dogs

"All of the animals except for man know that the principle business of life is to enjoy it." – Samuel Butler

Kissing Prairie dogsPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Brocken Inaglory

Kissing Horses.

“When animals express their feelings they pour out like water from a spout. Animals’ emotions are raw, unfiltered, and uncontrolled. Their joy is the purest and most contagious of joys and their grief the deepest and most devastating. Their passions bring us to our knees in delight and sorrow.” – Marc Bekoff

Horse BreedsPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Daniel Johnson

Loving a best friend!

Chesney is pushing around his new found kitten friend Joey, who was orphaned at just two-weeks old!

“The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Photo Via dailymail.co.uk

Loving those less fortunate!

German shepherd named Leo is protecting and guiding a young cavalier King Charles spaniel that is almost completely blind.

"The greatest pleasure of a dog is that you may make a fool of yourself with him and not only will he not scold you, but he will make a fool of himself, too." – Samuel Butler

German shepherd named Leo is protecting and guiding a young cavalier King Charles spaniel in England that is almost completely blind. Photo Via pawnation.com

 

Bug up close and personal!

These two are going at it "eye-to-eye"! Some insects can taste with their feet or legs too!

"Only your true friends will tell you when your face is dirty."

Up close and personal, going at it "eye-to-eye"!Photo Wiki Commons, Courtesy OakleyOriginals

Kissing a crocodile!

A Malaysian man kissing a crocodile in a zoo.

"Until one has loved an animal a part of one’s soul remains unawakened." – Anatole France

Kissing a crocodilePhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Osm agha

Love = hanging out with friends!

Koko is a 35 year-old lowland gorilla who enjoys a heart-warming relationship with kittens.

“The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which.” – George Orwell, Animal Farm

Kissing and snuggling a cat!

"…loving and caring for my beautiful daughter, Devi."

“Petting, scratching, and cuddling a dog (or cat!) could be as soothing to the mind and heart as deep meditation and almost as good for the soul as prayer.” – Dean Koontz

Types of pet catsPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Flower.dicicco

Kissing a Seal!

"Angels walk among us, sometimes they are unseen and have wings, and sometimes they pant and lick our faces." Jonathan Brooks

“You can judge a man’s true character by the way he treats his fellow animals.”
- Paul McCartney

Kissing a Seal. Photo Wiki Commons, Courtesy Topory

A Bubble Eye Goldfish sums it all up…

"Animals never worry about Heaven or Hell, neither do I, maybe that’s why we get along." – Charles Bukowski

Bubble Eye GoldfishPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Angie Torres

Clarice Brough is a team member at Animal-World and has contributed many articles and write-ups.

Rhino Bond with the Kaziranga National Park

One-Horned Rhino, Rhinoceros unicornis. See more interesting animalsGreater One-Horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, Photo Source, Flickr

The instinctive bond of One-Horned Rhinos with Kaziranga National Park.

“The only way to save a rhinoceros is to save the environment in which it lives, because there’s a mutual dependency between it and millions of other species of both animals and plants.” – David Attenborough

Rhinoceros, commonly known as rhino, is a name used for the uneven-toed ungulate animal that belongs to the family of Rhinocerotidae. The largest of the rhino species is the one-horned rhino. A single glimpse of this majestic wild animal is enough to enthrall a nature aficionado. The exotic one-horned rhinos are the pride of India and were once present in the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent. However, the rhino population in the country has been depleted because of the continuous poaching.

Interesting Facts About One-Horned Rhinoceros

One-horned rhinos are herbivorous animals that have a thick skin on their body. There are a good number of one horned rhinos in India owing to extremely effective conservation efforts taken by the authorities. Greater one-horned rhinos are creatures who love solitude. They are principally grazers, with their diet almost completely consisting of grasses and leaves, fruits, tree branches, shrubs, and aquatic plants.

This animal has a great sense of hearing and a wonderful sense of smell. Hence, they can find their companions with no trouble. Rhinos go around in the search of food when the climate is a bit cooler and they avoid the heat of the afternoon. They submerge themselves in water when the temperature is high in order to avoid direct exposure to severe heat. The greater one-horned rhinos are expert swimmers and can feed underwater as well.

The one-horned rhinos at Kaziranga National Park are poached extensively for their horn as it is believed that their horn is useful in making medicine. They went to the brink of extinction because of these killings. To prevent them from disappearance, the government of India has employed many conservation projects. Several protected areas are taking essential steps to conserve this amazing wildlife species. Most prominent of them is Kaziranga National Park!

Kaziranga and One-Horned Rhinos

The legacy of India lies not just in its imposing monuments but also in its natural wonders. Kaziranga National Park is a protected area in India that has conserved the wonders and beauty of nature. This park is well known for its commendable and huge wildlife assortment and is a well-respected natural center for varied wildlife species in the country. It is situated on the bank of the huge Brahmaputra River in the districts of Nagaon and Golaghat, Assam. This intriguing protected area is also famous for the conservation of great number of one-horned rhinos. In the year 2012, the population of one horned rhinos in Kaziranga was expected to be 2,329. This park was set up in Assam to save the population of one-horned rhinos from harm.

Almost two-thirds of world’s rhino population resides in the immensely widespread areas of Kaziranga National Park. Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, also known as Lady Curzon, visited this region in the year 1904 and she later pioneered the conservation work in this park. Kaziranga is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site that has been thriving in the conservation of the animal species. This national park has become an essential element of Assam tourism in modern times, since a large number of wildlife buffs swarms it every year. One-horned rhinos enjoy an ultimate and ideal environment in this park, where there are enormous spans of greenery and glinting water bodies. Several wildlife safaris are carried out all through the tourist seasons to facilitate wildlife lovers in watching the one-horned rhinos up close. These safaris or guided tours are conducted with the help of jeeps or elephants.

Several confines have been positioned to guard this national park from being contaminated or causing any sort of annoyance to its exotic flora and fauna. Loads of wildlife aficionados broaden their support in a number of ways for improving conservation practices for the one-horned rhino and generating more employment prospects. As a result of such actions, the population of one-horned rhinos has improved to a substantial degree over the years. The significant factor that creates a center of attention for visitors the most is the vista of one-horned rhinos that can be seen in a large number of areas in this beautiful wildlife sanctuary.

More info about Kaziranga National Park

How to reach:

  • BY ROAD: Kaziranga is located 217 kms east of Guwahati. There is around a 4 hour drive from Guwahati on NH-37, to reach the park. This park is well connected with the cities like Tezpur (80 kms), Jorhat (97 kms) and Dibrugarh (250 kms).
  • BY AIR: The nearest airport from Kaziranga is Guwahati (217 kms).
  • BY RAIL: Nearest Railhead is in Furkating (80 km) from where a tourist can take any mode of transportation to get to Kaziranga.

Best time to visit:

Kaziranga National Park is open for the wildlife admirers and nature lovers from 1st November to 30th April every year. It is rampaged by the floods during monsoon season. Overfilling of vacationers for the duration of December and January encumbers a private experience. Hence, the months of February and March are the best months to pay a visit to Kaziranga National Park.

Kaziranga is an ideal abode for one-horned rhinos. A visit to this arresting park crowns the minds of wildlife lovers with spellbinding sights of this mammoth creature that one can treasure for a lifetime.

Anshul Srivastava is a wildlife enthusiast, who loves to wander around different wildlife destinations of India. At the same time, he has got a command over writing and thus, he pens down and shares his experience with the world.

Keeping Wrasses Together Successfully

All sorts of wrassesSolar Fairy Wrasse Cirrhilabrus solorensis and Filamented Flasher Wrasse Paracheinus filamentosus

Can wrasses get along?

Here’s some ways to keep several Fairy Wrasses, several Flasher Wrasses, or a mixture of both!

Perusing the Internet, I have noticed more and more aquarists questioning, not only the compatibility of fairy wrasses Cirrhilabrus species, but also the compatibility of flasher wrasses Paracheilinus species.

Questions can vary from, “Can you put several fairy wrasses in the same tank?” or “Can you put several flasher wrasses in the same tank?” to “Would adding females make for more aggression?” and “Can you put flasher and fairy wrasses together?”

Some aquarists, such as myself, have had 4 or 5 fairy wrasses together, usually without a problem in a 150-gallon tank, yet others have had disastrous results. Why the variation? Is it tank size or length that matters? There are so many variables, thus aquarists need to include all other fish tank mates (not the inverts or corals), tank volume, and tank length when stating success or failure. This will help to narrow down what is, or what is not successful.

So many variables demand specifics. My hopes are to present some techniques that I have used successfully, along with future experiments involving compatibility. One thing I did notice is when you have a more peaceful community; certain fish behave better, yet when adding rambunctious fish, the bad attitude or skittishness seems to spread to the other fish. That is a topic for another blog! Now on to my first wrasse experiment and my past experiences. Note that all these fish are male.

Compatible WrassesFilamented Flasher Wrasse and Solar Fairy Wrasse getting along after 10 days

Filamented Flasher Wrasse and Solar Fairy Wrasse

I first want to discuss my current tank set up and how the Filamented Flasher Wrasse Paracheilinus filamentosus and the Solar Fairy Wrasse Cirrhilabrus solorensis are getting along. My tank is 75 gallons, 4′ long and contains a Flame Angelfish, male and female Picasso and Platinum Percula Clownfish, Royal Gramma, Lawnmower Blenny, established 5″ Yellowhead (neon) Wrasse Halichoeres garnoti, and a cleaner wrasse. It is embarrassing to admit I have a cleaner wrasse, yet after 6 weeks he is still alive and eating mysis, however, longevity is never promising with these wrasses.

When I got home late on a Wednesday, the lights in the tank were out, and knowing that the 3″ young Flame Angelfish would NOT be happy with any new tank mates I would be adding, I took precautions. While the little darling was sleeping, I rearranged the rockwork while I acclimated the two wrasses.

Once I finished the tank remodel, the wrasses were ready to enter their new home and I’m still waiting on the security deposit they BOTH promised me! Typical of these two genuses of wrasses, they need crevices or caves to spin their cocoon in, as they sleep. I had two separate caves for them, and holding each wrasse securely in my hand, one by one, I gently introduced them into their own cave. It was awesome how quickly each accepted their hide out and both quickly spun a cocoon and stayed in for the night!

The next morning, the Flame Angelfish was quite curious and took a few runs at the wrasses, but nothing serious. I must point out that BOTH the Filamented Flasher Wrasse and the Solar Fairy Wrasse were the same size, around 2.5″ from nose to the base of the tailfin. This means the flasher wrasse is probably in its “late teens” since the Filamented Flashers only reach 3.9.” The Solar Fairy wrasse is probably in its early teens and will reach a maximum of about 5″ at adulthood.

The first few days, the Solar Fairy charged the Filamented Flasher very aggressively, but only in short bursts, with no apparent contact or bite marks. This continued for the first week, however, it was not a constant occurrence. By the middle of the second week, they hardly pay attention to each other. The Filamented Flasher Wrasse prefers to hang out near the two clownfish in the front right corner of the tank, and the Solar Fairy Wrasse is all over the place, typical of these wrasses. The Flame Angelfish seems to keep the Solar Fairy occupied and periodically darts at him, leaving no damage. The only time the two wrasses interact is when the flasher wrasse gets spook and darts in the direction of the Solar Fairy, who then reacts as any normal creature would if someone is running at them!

I have observed that the Flame Angelfish occupies the Solar Fairy Wrasse’s attention by periodically chasing him, so that may be a variable as to why both wrasses are working out. Has anyone else had these two wrasses WITHOUT a dwarf angelfish with success?

What’s Next?

My next attempt will be to add a Lubbocki’s Fairy Wrasse or another flasher wrasse like a McCosker’s Flasher or Carpenter Flasher Wrasse. In a previous tank I had a Rosey Scale Fairy Wrasse Cirrhilabrus rubrisquamis who was a constant companion to my Solar Fairy Wrasse, so I may even try adding 3 next time. When this happens, I will add all 3 at the same time, to divide the attention of the established Filamented Flasher and Solar Fairy. I will again rearrange the rockwork to break up territories that the Flame Angelfish will have and to distract the little red monster! I was told I should try female flasher wrasses, yet I feel this may compromise the harmony of the males.

Filamented Flasher WrasseFilamented Flasher Wrassse hanging with his pals

Two Previous Fairy Wrasse Communities

As I mentioned earlier, I had a 150-gallon tank with 2 different sets of fairy wrasses Cirrhilabrus species at different times. The first set of fairy wrasses were added in the following order: Solar Fairy Wrasse Cirrhilabrus Solorensis, Lubbocki Fairy Wrasse C. Lubbocki, Scott’s Fairy Wrasse C. Scottorum, Velvet Fairy Wrasse C. luteovittatus, and then a Whipfin Fairy Wrasse C. filamentous.

The Solar Fairy and the Lubbocki were settled in for several months before I added the Scott’s Fairy Wrasse and the Velvet Fairy Wrasse. When I added the Scott’s Fairy and the Velvet Fairy, the Solar Fairy then hid under a rock, but fortunately he was visible so I could keep an eye on him. His color was blotchy and he was obviously very intimidated by his two new tank mates. The Solar Fairy would grab food as it floated by, so I was not worried about him eating, although at the two-week mark, I needed to make a decision to remove him. At the 10-day mark he started to come out and the other wrasses passively checked him out, but there was no aggression. I think he realized they were not a threat and all this hiding was just silly! Who knows the mind of a fairy wrasse! Maybe it’s along the lines of, “Food, food, and food, OH! there’s a copepod! NOM NOM NOM… food, food, food… OH! There’s my human! Okay, look cute and fluttery and fairyish!” Did I feed them this morning?

The mistake I made was adding the Whipfin Fairy Wrasse last. This fish was so freaked out; it enlisted in a carpet surfing competition! After watching carefully, I saw that the Velvet Fairy Wrasse was the pursuer and antagonizer, who also chased my Lubbocki up and out of the tank to join the Whipfin’s team! I did get rid of the Velvet Fairy Wrasse after the Lubbocki jumped ship, however there were no bite marks or wounds, so I assumed he just ran out of water depth trying to get away from the Yellow-Streaked demon Velvet Fairy!

Interestingly, I did have a Harlequin Tuskfish who never paid the other wrasses any attention. The Solar Fairy Wrasse had no problem with the smaller and more peaceful fairy wrasses yet could hold its own with the larger fairy wrasses. I am guessing he was not much of a threat, but his size kept them at bay. I call the Solar Fairy Wrasse the “crossover” wrasse and this is why I chose it to put it with a flasher wrasse in the above experiment.

The second set of wrasses came after a tank crash, which occurred while I was away for 2 weeks. At any rate, I had decided to add several wrasses at one time. They consisted of a small Red Scaled Wrasse Cirrhilabrus rubisquamis, a larger Temminck’s Fairy Wrasse C. temminckii and a Lubbocki Fairy Wrasse. I already had another Solar Fairy Wrasse in the tank of course! The only issue was that the Lubbocki Fairy Wrasse did jump out of the tank, so I decided not to add any more of the smaller, more peaceful wrasses with the more aggressive larger wrasses.

The Temmincki Fairy Wrasse was spectacular and in charge. This fish would swim at the upper level of the tank, with characteristics of a flasher wrasse, with an electric appearance to the lines on his body! As he swam near the surface, I always worried about him jumping out, yet he never did. I didn’t have any aggressive fish in the tank, so that may have been the reason for my success!

What to Try

In conclusion, try adding smaller and more peaceful wrasses first and if possible add them all at the same time. If you cannot do that, add two or three at a time and rearrange the rockwork to diffuse aggression. Several choices would be; to stay only with the smaller and more peaceful wrasses, go with the larger and more aggressive fairy wrasses (possibly not involving flasher wrasses in this group, unless it is an aggressive species if such a fish exists), or have a dense population of wrasses to diffuse aggression between the larger and smaller wrasses, while providing many places to hide and plenty of food to eat.

Lessening aggression with food, distraction, and hiding places is an almost universal solution when it comes to many fish. For those who are having problems with their wrasses, try the elliptical or stair master! Or for your fish, try rearranging the rockwork. Yes I know that is hard, but your body and your fish will thank you for it! Catching a wrasse can prove difficult in some cases, so give that a shot first! Interestingly, this method of rock work rearrangement works great when introducing a new Tang/Surgeonfish to a tank with establish Tangs/Surgeonfish. If that does not work, remove your largest or smallest wrasse, since either the tank size or length, or aggression may be the issue. PLEASE let us know of any success or observations, and include other fish, tank size, and tank length in your comment.

Carrie McBirney is a team member at Animal-World and has contributed many articles and write-ups.

Next Page »