Traveling with a horse? 6 Tips to Make the Trip Easier

September 3, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Horses

Horse Care for a healthy equineHorse going into trailer, courtesy Jan Glas on Flickr

Across Town or Cross Country: Saving Your Horse from Transport Stress!

Motion sickness and travel stress affects many people, but did you know that horses can get stressed when traveling, too?

Most of the time, owners can lessen the stress and sickness for their horses by simply being more careful when loading the trailer and while driving.

It is safe and simple to transport horses, if you consider all the factors that could cause your animal undue stress. Take steps to reduce, or even remove them. Doing so will not only protect your precious cargo, it will give you the peace of mind to keep your focus on the road.

If you’re taking your horse horse across town or across the nation, the following recommendations can make the ride much easier for everyone.

Think Head Heavy

Horses bow their heads often. They’re not depressed – they do this to alleviate respiratory stress and for mucus-draining purposes. Traveling in a straightaway trailer with limited space stresses horses and their ability to breathe. They may even compete with the other horses for extra space in the carriage. If trailer room is limited, leave your horses untied, or give them enough leeway to move around a bit and bow their heads for better breathing and comfort.

Make Friendships and Friend Trips

When possible, ship horses with their friends, meaning other horses they’re familiar with. This lowers the risk of attracting disease from other animals. Also, like humans, horses feel comfortable around those they know. They feel less stress when coupled with recognizable horse mates. Consider investing in a 2-horse gooseneck trailer, which provides a lot of space, yet allows for plenty of comforting companionship.

Always Keep it Clean

In tight spaces, pathogens from manure have a far greater influence on a horse’s respiratory system, especially if the animal is already feeling stressed from the trip. Always clean your horse trailer thoroughly between treks. For long trips, stop intermittently to clean manure from the trailer, and wash away all traces of urine and dried feces.

Teach the Horse to Load

Loading is extremely stressful for horses, and a time when injury is most likely to occur. Teach your horse the loading procedure by walking them through it until they are comfortable with the process. Don’t overwork your horse by over-practicing, though. Just get them familiar with loading, and give them a refresher course once or twice a week.

If your horse is especially difficult or reluctant to learn, hire an experienced and patient trainer. If there has been a longer gap in trips, take your horse for a practice run by making a short road trip.

Maintain Air Quality

Unless you’re traveling in the colder northern territory, it’s not likely your horse will get too cold. However, horses become stressed and sick due to poor ventilation and rising temperatures inside the trailer. Leave the trailer windows or vents open. Check for drafts coming from the back of the trailer that could blow exhaust fumes into the small area. Maintain great air quality and make accommodations to keep the inner cabin from becoming too hot or cold for your animals.

Let Your Horses Rest

Travel taxes horses, both mentally and physically. If you’re planning on using your horse for an athletic or farm-related event after the journey, leave early to give the animal a few days, even as much as up to one week, to rest and get its strength back. For after-trip conditioning, give your horse about a week to recover and get back to normal health after a long drive.

Be Gentle

Timing and money may be important factors to consider, but the best way to care for your horses is to adopt a slow and steady driving routine, rather than an erratic and time-sensitive trip full of stress.

In order to understand hauling horses better, have someone drive the trailer while you sit in the back, mocking the ride of the horses. Some horse owners even secure a half-full glass of water to the top of the dashboard, noting that any water splashing outside the glass is the direct result of erratic and potentially unsafe driving.

Dan Kelly has been working with horses since he volunteered at a neighbor’s ranch as a teenager. With a heart for their grace and strength, he often writes about horse training and care on equestrian blogs and training sites.

Learn more about horses. See the World of Horses and Ponies with all types of horse breeds from light horses and ponies, to draft horses!

Obese Dog? 7 Tips to Loose the Fat

August 14, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Pet Dogs

See all types of dogsPhoto Wiki Commons, courtesy Jonasz

Canine Obesity: Tips to Get Your Dog Fit and Trim!

There is sometimes a fine line between spoiling our much-loved family dog and actually contributing to their health problems if they become obese.

Canine obesity is on the rise, and according to the PDSA, as many as 50% of our nation’s dogs could die early as a result of obesity.

Obese dogs have a much higher likelihood of suffering from related medical conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, heart and lung disease, as well as putting an extra strain on their immune system and causing high blood pressure.

7 Tips to for a fit and trim dog:

  1. Warning signs
    The overriding message that needs to be considered here for all dog owners, is that a dog that manages to maintain an ideal body weight will, on average, live 15% longer than an overweight dog, and reduce their odds of suffering from diseases too.

    It can sometimes be difficult for a dog owner to accept or even believe that their canine friend is carrying as much as 20lb more than they should be, and the reason for this is primarily that because we have become rather immune to the sight of an overweight or fat dog, we seem not recognise this rather obvious visual warning sign.

  2. Quick test
    Different breeds have different traits and characteristics and in very general terms you would not expect to see a Greyhound carrying as much weight as a Labrador, but whatever breed of dog you have there is a relatively simple quick test that you could carry out to see if your dog is overweight or even obese.

    Run your hands along the side of your dog’s body all the way from the head to the tail and check if you can feel their ribs. You should be able to just feel the ribs in a dog that is carrying a healthy weight and once you have done this, take a look at your dog from the side.

    Most dogs should be able to achieve a relatively tucked-in profile, but if all you see and feel are some rolls of fat and their side profile is more rotund than sleek and slender, there is a good chance that they are carrying more weight than they should be.

  3. Health check
    If you have any concerns about your pet’s weight then it would be a good idea to make an appointment with your vet and get a professional opinion and advice on their current and ideal body weight, so that you know what you have to do to get your dog back into good shape.

    Once they have assessed their current weight and general health, your vet should be able to advise how many calories should be consumed each day in order to reach an ideal body weight.

  4. Feeding for health
    Dogs can have a tendency to eat when they are bored rather than when they are actually hungry, which is not dissimilar to the way some of us tend to behave, either.

    The best way to tackle their eating routine is to avoid giving them free choice and making food constantly available. Instead, operate portion-control with properly measured portions provided at regular intervals of between two and four times per day. It is important to feed your dog in concurrence with their ideal bodyweight and not their current weight. Feeding them according to their current weight rather than their target weight will result in continued weight gains, so be sure to take this into consideration as part of your efforts to get your do back into shape.

  5. A Diet for the Modern Dog
    We are constantly being informed that processed food that has a high sugar content and contains artificial preservatives and flavourings is bad for us. You should apply the same and caution and logic when it comes to following a diet that meets their needs but heeds our current understanding of what is considered bad food.

    Feeding your dog the right level of nutrients and helping them to overcome or avoid allergies is not as complicated as it may seem. Dogs have the metabolism to cope with raw meat and bacteria which humans do not, but they also have their list of bad foods which are chocolates and raisins or grapes, all of which are highly toxic to their system.

    If you aim to take the same level of dietary care that you would for yourself and introduce healthier and fresh ingredients like lean meat and a selection of fruit and vegetables in their bowl, this will help them to be leaner and fitter. It will also be much more beneficial to their long-term weight and health than relying on processed canned food all the time.

  6. Exercise
    As we all know, diet is one way to get rid of those extra pounds but exercise is just as important if your dog is going to be able to return to their ideal bodyweight as efficiently and healthily as possible.

    Regular walks and exercise are a key part of keeping a dog fit, healthy and happy. There is a growing trend amongst some dog owners to regard a walk with their dog as a bit of a treat on a sunny Sunday afternoon.

    Even if a dog has access to a reasonably large garden, they are much more likely to develop sedentary tendencies unless they get the stimulation of regular exercise with their owner. Injury and obesity are definitely risk factors if the exercise is sporadic and features only occasional bursts of running.

    It is also a chance for the owner to enjoy some fresh air and get a bit of healthy exercise, so do try and work a daily walk with your dog into your timetable.

  7. Treatments to consider

    There is also a growing trend in the use of canine hydrotherapy pools for getting overweight dogs back into shape and improving their overall heath profile.

    Hydrotherapy for dogs can be an ideal solution as swimming and exercising in a hydro pool designed for canine use offers the opportunity for non-load bearing exercise, which is particularly helpful for dogs who want to avoid strain being placed on injured or recovering joints and muscles, but need the exercise to control their weight.

    Many dogs derive a great deal of pleasure from their visit to the pool and ball exercises make it a fun activity that many enjoy, especially as even nervous dogs are catered for with flotation devices if they are unsure about the water at first.

Canine obesity is a growing trend, so make sure that your dog does not become another statistic by employing a healthy eating and exercise routine.

Jack Wilkes is a canine hydrotherapist with a passion for all animals. When not seeing patients or walking his own dogs, he enjoys writing about basic pet health concerns and training challenges. Connect with DoggySwim on Facebook or Google+.

Amazing Facts About Bengal Tigers

Bengal Tiger, Panthera tigris. See more interesting animalsBengal Tiger Panthera tigris, Photo Wiki Commons, Courtesy John and Karen Hollingsworth, Fish & Wildlife Service Licensed under Public Domain

Some startling facts about tigers which will make you awestruck!

A little bit of fright, enough of a thrill, and the heights of imagination – all these work together during your Bengal Tiger sighting trip.

Voted as the world’s favorite animal, this tiger is the most varied cat on earth, and has many unique features and interesting compulsions. Less social, comfort loving and crepuscular, these wild carnivores have always been the center of attraction during all adventurous wildlife tours.

Let’s explore the twisting facts about this exclusive creature which will make you stunned.

  • Night vision of the tiger is approximately six times better than humans,
  • To mark their territories, they scratch trees and use their urine.
  • Unlike other members of the cat family tigers are good swimmers and can go easily inside water for cooling themselves and in the pursuit of prey.
  • A tiger’s brain may weigh over 300g which is believed to be the largest among carnivores after the polar bears.
  • Just like human fingerprints, the stripes on each tiger are unique.
  • For trapping their prey, tigers are often found imitating the sound of other animals. Bears constitute a major part of the tigers’ diet as very often their habitats overlap.
  • There are very small numbers of tigers who develop a taste for human flesh.
  • Tigers’ saliva contains antiseptic elements. That is why they lick their wounds to disinfect them.
  • Tigresses become fertile for only four to five days in the entire year.
  • Tigers can guess the gender, age and reproductive status of other tigers smelling their urine markings.
  • Tigers do not normally roar at other animals. Actually they roar to communicate with far-off tigers. Therefore, a tiger in attacking moded might hiss and fluff instead of roaring.
  • Unless a tiger feels threatened it does not attack humans as prey.
  • Tigers are territorial and love to live solitary lives except when mating. Each tiger has a specific territory and the area of a male overlaps with many other females.
  • Just like the young ones of the domestic cat, tigers are also completely blind for the first week of their life.
  • It takes 30-40 days for a human to die of starvation whereas a tiger will die within two or three weeks.
  • Tigers have a better memory than any other animals including humans. They have a hundred times better memory than dogs and dozens of times better memory than primates.
  • Tigers can run at a speed of approximately 60km/h for short distances.
  • Tigers are conscious about the rights of females and kids. That is why when several tigers assemble around a kill, they wait for the females and kids to eat first. Whereas, it is just the opposite in the case of lions.

A majestic creation of nature, India’s national animal the tiger, was brought to the verge of extinction due to the illegal human interference on their habitat. But the preventive steps taken by the Government of India, especially the Save Tiger Project has shown its colors. Today a total of 3200 tigers are found across the world out of which 1706 tigers are found in India with the highest density of tigers in Bandhavgarh National Park. To make India richer in the number of its tiger population, some popular national parks like Ranthambore, Corbett, Pench, Tadoba, Sundarban and Periyar also contributed significantly.

Anshul Srivastava is a wildlife enthusiast, who loves to wander around different wildlife destinations of India. At the same time, he has gotten a command over writing and thus, he pens down and shares his experience with the world.

Horse Care, Alternative Therapies

June 16, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Horses

Horse Care for a healthy equineCaring for horses has come a long way!
World War I poster in the Library of Congress.
Photo Wikimedia Commons, Courtesy chreck, Horst, 1885, Public domain

Alternative Therapies: Good for You, Great for Your Horse!

There is little doubt that alternative therapies are on-trend and what these can do for human health has also opened up a wealth of possibilities and opportunities to provide equine alternative therapies in the form of acupuncture, Rolfing, herbal remedies and homeopathic solutions, amongst an ever-widening range of options.

Here is a look at some of the alternative therapies that you may want to consider for your horse and remember to take proper veterinary advice, especially when you consider that many of these treatments are designed to complement veterinary care rather than replace it entirely.

Acupuncture

The Chinese have been practicing acupuncture on humans and horses for thousands of years and the premise is that by stimulating specific points on the body, you can generate beneficial effects by tapping into the currents of energy that flow through the body pathways that are called meridians.

The conventional Western view of this alternative therapy is that acupuncture stimulates the nervous system and causes the release of body chemicals including endorphins, which help to ease pain, improve circulation and promote the reduction of muscle spasms.

It should always be remembered that if your horse is sick or badly injured then your medical priority is to seek veterinary help first and foremost, but treatment using acupuncture may well produce some noticeable improvements in the recovery process and ease the level of pain being felt.

Look to see if there is a noticeable improvement in the horse’s condition after about four sessions of acupuncture and review your position at this point to see whether you want to continue with this particular alternative therapy or look at other options if you are not noticing any benefits.

Rolfing

If you are not familiar with Rolfing, it can also be referred to as structural integration and is in many ways, a fusion of massage and chiropractic methods which is performed by a certified Rolfer and licensed equine massage therapist.

The process involves manual manipulation of soft tissue with the aim of seeking to rebalance the horse’s structure, working with the tissues that pull on bones and joints, which is where the focus is different from a Chiropractic approach.

Rolfing was a method developed for people about 50 years ago and works on the theory that the body compensates for tension and injuries in a way that pulls the natural physical structure out of line, and using various parts of their hand and even their elbows, the Rolfer aims to free the connective tissue and allow the body to align.

You can actually see physical signs of the horse responding to this treatment as they may chew, yawn, shake their head or jiggle around during the session, which are all positive signs of tension release. Between three and five sessions of Rolfing should be sufficient in order to address most issues and if you are unsure, perhaps ask the practitioner whether you can watch a session before booking treatment for your horse.

Alternative medicine

The key to using alternative medicine in addition to things like Natural Horse Supplements is to consider the health of the animal in its entirety rather than focusing attention on one specific area such as an injured limb.

Alternative medicine is a wide-ranging term that describes holistic practices that rely on medications and the use of syringes and will involve treatments using chiropractic methods, acupuncture, herbalism and homeopathy amongst various different modes of treatment.

A common issue with horses is lameness and this condition is a good example of how alternative medicine can be used to help the animal back to a full recovery in a more natural way. There are many different facets of lameness and it can often have a domino effect in triggering other ailments as a result of the original problem causing pain and discomfort. For example, if a horse is found to have arthritis in the hock, this will cause a change in movement that then becomes muscle soreness in the lower back, which in turn can cause the horse to shift its weight unnaturally which will further compound the injuries that they are suffering from.

Many of the horse owners and practitioners who advocate the use of alternative medicine and view a holistic approach to healing in a positive way, also understand and adopt the principle that conventional medicine or alternative medicine could fix the problem eventually on their own, but when the two forces are combined, this makes for a potentially powerful force that can help your horse quickly and efficiently return to full health.

Contributing author Misty Easley is a highly experienced veterinarian. When not treating her patients, she spends her time researching emerging research and trends in the vet medicine.

Nano Tank Stocking Guide for Reef, Saltwater and Freshwater Aquariums

Find live fish, plants and corals

Fish Selection Guide for Nano Tanks

10+ general rules for stocking the nano aquarium. For the best success, follow these suggestions when you are selecting fish for the nano aquarium, whether you plan on keeping a freshwater, saltwater, or a mini-reef tank.

Considering the nano tank’s small size, the first and most important rule when stocking your tank, is to avoid overpopulation. This rule refers not only to the number of fish you put in your tank but also the other life forms that are present. These include invertebrates like worms, clams, snails; echinoderms such as a starfish, sea urchin, or sea cucumber; crustaceans like crabs, lobsters and shrimp; other bottom feeders and even corals.

Here are some general rules on stocking your nano tank:

  1. Avoid putting in schooling fish since most species will not allow other fish species in the nano aquarium. There are also fish species that should be housed as the only fish in a nano tank. These include dottybacks, angelfishes, and hawkfishes.
  2. In nano reeftanks smaller than 20 gallons, it is not recommended to add even one Clownfish, not even a small one since it can grow big. Clownfish are territorial and will want to own the entire tank and will chase away and/or bully other fish species in the tank.
  3. Choose fish species that are not jumpers. Fish belong inside the tank and not on your floor. If you do select a “jumper”, make sure to put a tight-fitting cover over your tank to prevent your fish from jumping out.
  4. Know what your fish feeds on. You might end up placing a fish in your nano tank that feed on shrimp, snails, and other tank inhabitants. There are also herbivorous fish that thrive well on a bit of microalgae and broccoli, as well as frozen or flake fish food that contain spirulina. Knowing what their feeding habits are can ensure that you are able to meet their nutritional needs.
  5. Don’t mix fish of different behaviors—aggressive versus smaller and shy ones. The smaller fish species will be outcompeted for food resulting in starvation. Other factors that should also be considered include the adult size and temperament of the fish.
  6. Fish species with similar feeding habits may also cause a problem for each other, as they compete for food.
  7. When buying fish at the local fish store, ask the staff to show you that the fish you are interested in is eating. Find out what type of feed is being given so you can continue the same feeding regimen when you bring the fish home. If the fish is not eating, it is best not to buy it.
  8. When buying fish, observe its overall appearance. Don’t buy fish with a sunken belly since this is an indication that the fish is on a starvation diet. Buy only healthy-looking ones.
  9. For nano reef tanks, avoid buying fish that will nibble or pick at corals. Constant picking may cause injury that can easily get infected, or prevent coral from opening up.
  10. When picking out fish, select based on the display area volume of the tank, not the total tank volume. This is attributed to the fact that the display area of nano tanks holds less water than the total tank since some of the tank water is in the filtration area.
  11. Other equally important factors that you should consider when selecting fish for your nano tank include water quality and habitat selection.

About the author: Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides excellent online aquarium supplies for hobbyists to build their own betta fish tanks,
nano tanks, fish ponds, freshwater shrimp tanks and other DIY aquarium tanks.

Nano Tank Setup Tips for a Great Miniature Aquarium

May 30, 2014 by  
Filed under All Posts, Aquariums

Nano aquariums and supplies

Tips to start and maintain nano tanks.

Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned aquarist, maintaining a nano aquarium is definitely a rewarding undertaking.

A nano aquarium usually refers to a tank that is 10 gallons or less. Most of the guidelines and equipment needed for setting up a larger aquarium also applies to a nano aquarium.

Here are some useful tips to setting up and maintaining a nano tank:

Purchasing a Nano Aquarium

Before making a purchase, decide what you eventually want to achieve with your nano tank. Will it serve as a grow-out tank? Are you aiming for a display tank that will make a good conversation piece in your home or office? Will you be having a plant or shrimp farm? Once you already know what you want, you can now purchase your nano tank.

Aquarium Substrate

Substrate is an important component in a planted aquarium. It is recommended to purchase the best substrate that is available. A good substrate should be rich in minerals like carbon and iron. It must be capable of softening the water and lowering pH.

Choose a substrate that has a finer grain. Since this type of substrate is more expensive than the ordinary ones, you can just add a top layer of fine-grained substrate to the bottom layer before adding water. Using lava rock, pumice, or sintered clay balls in the bottom layer can promote oxygenation and prevent creating an anaerobic environment within the substrate.

Choosing a Theme

To make it easier to keep the ideal water parameters indicated for all the inhabitants of your tank, it is best to focus your aquascaping and stock plants around them, including their shelter and breeding structures.

Avoid Overpopulation

With the nano tank’s small size, maintaining an ideal population in your aquarium will help maintain good water quality. When establishing a new system, it is best to introduce only a few fish at a time over a period of several weeks. Select the smallest fish species that you can find, and a modest group of bottom cleaners.

Nano Tank Filtration

Consider using live plants and special forms of gravel for freshwater nano tanks, and live rock or sand for your nano reef. These can help promote tank health coupled with minimum use of external filtration systems.

Water Quality

Since nano tanks have accelerated cycles in water quality, daily testing and observation are highly recommended. The behavior of the fish inhabitants—hiding, drifting, gasping, or darting—is also a good indication of existing health dangers that lurk inside the tank.

Frequent partial water changes (at least 10-20%) once a week, also promote a healthy tank environment. This is especially necessary if you are pushing the population limit, or keeping fish species with larger bio-loads.

Tank Filter System

Filter media should be changed frequently to prevent algal bloom and ensure the well-being of your fish.

Troubleshooting

With the small enclosed ecosystem in a nano tank, small problems can easily worsen in a short span of time, and may threaten the health of your aquarium inhabitants. Whenever you notice something out of the ordinary, such as nitrite level that tested high or a bio-wheel that has stopped turning, act on it the soonest possible time.

About the author: Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides excellent online aquarium supplies for hobbyists to build their own betta fish tanks,
nano tanks, fish ponds, freshwater shrimp tanks and other DIY aquarium tanks.

Snow Leopards, Elegant Asian Mountain Cats

See more interesting animalsSnow Leopard, Uncia uncia.
Photo Courtesy Jaro at Jo Company of Dublin, Ireland

Tracing the tracks of Snow Leopards in the alpine mountains.

Gorgeous and hushed as snowfall, the Snow Leopard is known all over the globe for its beauty and intangible behavior. The white-gray coat with black spots combines perfectly with the rocky mountains of Central and South Asia.

These wild cats love this kind of natural habitat. It offers them good cover to stay out of sight while hunting. Moreover, they are highly adapted to the harsh and arid climate of the mountains.

Some amazing facts about Snow Leopards:

Snow Leopard, Uncia unciaPhoto Wiki Commons, Courtesy Bernard Landgraf, GNU Free Documentation License
  1. Like most wild cats, this magnificent mountain cat hunts at night. The most common creatures killed by these cats are wild goats, deer, pikas, markhor, game birds, rodents and hares.
  2. The Snow Leopard is scientifically dubbed as Uncia uncia.
  3. They are found at elevations as high as 9800 feet above sea level.
  4. These are the most mystical among wild cats. They have a stunning coat with black rosettes that helps them in disguise.
  5. These cats weigh from 30-55 kg, and the length of the tail measures from 80-135cm.
  6. They are considered excellent jumpers and bear a resemblance to leopards.
  7. Their paws are large and covered with fur, which protects them from getting injuries.
  8. The gestation period of a female is about 90 to 110 days.
  9. They can live up to 18 years, though some have been known to live up to 21 years.

Why Snow Leopards are endangered

This wild cat’s numbers are gradually declining, with its population in the wild estimated at around 6000. According to the International Union for the conservation of Nature and Natural resources they are listed as an endangered species.

There are a number of reasons why they are in danger, but humans are the biggest threat to Snow Leopards. They hunt them for fur, pelt and bones. Many people are found wearing coats and hats made from leopard skin, while on the other hand, the Chinese use their bones in medicines. Not only this, humans also cause immense damage to their habitats and food sources.

When there is no or limited prey left in the wild, they are forced to venture out of their designated habit into human settlements where they start killing and eating the farm animals of villagers, such as goats and sheep. In response the local people kill these straying cats to save their stock.

Cites, another respected organization, puts a lot of effort into discovering creatures that could be in trouble. It protects the endangered species and forbids trade of animal species or their body parts.

Saving them from extinction

The Snow Leopard was first listed as an endangered species in the year 1972 and since then its population has been on the decline. The very old and respected Snow Leopard Trust works exclusively to save the endangered cat and its home. Right now the trust focuses its attempts in countries like Kyrgyzstan, India, Pakistan, China and Mongolia. It raises money through fundraising events, donations and by selling products online, and is maintained by the other organizations.

There are many organizations working together to make important contributions to the conservation of the endangered Snow Leopard. Conservation groups in many countries where these wild cats survive are working with the farmers to help improve the situation and minimize the problem of human-snow leopard conflicts. The herders and farmers have been taught how to protect their livestock areas against these creatures.

Where Snow Leopards Live

One can witness these top predators in the Himalayan Mountains of Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and Bhutan. The likelihood of encountering one of these wild cats seems like a fancy dream. Spotting it in its high, overwhelming habitat will be a real reward for anyone.

On a tour to India, don’t miss out on visiting the famous Hemis National Park where snow leopards are found. Some of other renowned national parks are Khunjerab National park, Pakistan; Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal; Katun Nature Reserve, Russia and Sarychat- Ertah State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan.

The existence of this elusive animal is significant as it signifies the health of the surroundings and the preservation of the snow leopard cannot be successful without the help and support of the local people. Make an effort to protect the wild cat, “Uncia uncia“, and its habitat. They need your love!

Contributing author Tanmay Sharma is a wildlife admirer and very passionate about wildlife tourism.

Is Your Betta sick? Here’s What to Do

Siamese Fighting FishSiamese Fighting Fish

Betta Fish Care: Lists of Symptoms, Diseases and Cures.

Betta fish, also known as Siamese Fighting Fish, originated from small ponds and rivers of Thailand and Cambodia. They are primarily carnivorous surface feeders and can live up to four years in captivity.

Poor water quality inside their tank increases their susceptibility to important diseases. Like any other species of fish, their health is closely linked with the existing conditions in their environment. To keep your Betta healthy, you should make it a point to check the tank’s conditions frequently, coupled with regular cleaning and intensive care.

The Betta can suffer from various health problems caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and parasites. Distinct symptoms are often manifested and should give you a clue there is something wrong with your fish which needs to be addressed as soon as possible.

Disease Condition Cause Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Remarks
Fuzz Fungus (Saprolegnia sp. and Achlya sp.) White fluffy appearance on the body, and may include small gray tufts on the fin areas
  • Spot treatment with gentian violet, methylene blue, iodine and povidone
  • Aquarium salt
  • Potassium permanganate can be made into a paste and applied over the infected area
  • Aquarium fungicide can be used in serious cases
Usually an opportunistic infection that attacks immune-compromised fish recovering from another disease, subjected to a lot of stress, or has been exposed to poor water conditions for quite a long time.
Fin Rot or Tail Rot Bacteria
  • The Betta’s tail seems to be getting shorter and shorter, or they may seem to be falling apart and dissolving
  • A dark reddish color may be present on the edge of the fins or tail
  • Fins may be clumped
  • Color may be pale
  • Spot treatment of infected areas with Gentian violet, tetracycline or ampicillin
  • To help with osmoregulation, mix 1 tablespoon of aquarium salt for each 5 gallons of water
  • Frequent water changes
  • Predisposing factors include poor water quality or fin injury
  • Frequently followed by a secondary fungal infection
  • Affected fins and tails will grow back however these may not have the same color or may not be as long
Swim Bladder Disease Bacteria
  • Abnormal swimming patterns
  • Loss of balance, may float vertically at the top of the water or lie on the tank bottom
  • Treat with antibiotic in a clean, shallow tank-Fasting for 24-48 hours, and offer a pea the following day
  • Frequent water change
  • Predisposing Factors include physical injury to the swim bladder due to fighting or during transportation from the fish store
  • poor water quality
  • overfeeding
  • rough handling
  • Double Tail Bettas are more prone to the condition due to their shorter bodies
Ick (also known as Ich or White Spot) Parasite (Ichthyopthirius sp.)
  • The affected fish may appear as if it has been sprinkled with salt.
  • Less active
  • Loss of appetite
  • Clamped fins
  • May scratch on any object including rocks, plants, etc.
  • Commercial ick medications that contain formalin or malachite green
  • Increase the temperature of the tank water to 30° C (85° F)
  • Full water change
  • Very contagious
  • The parasite is sensitive to heat, thus raising the tank’s temperature causes the parasites to detach from the fish and swim in the medicated water

There are all sorts of things that can affect the health of your fish. The most common illnesses are usually bacterial or parasitic, sometimes fungal diseases, and on occasion physical ailments. Learn about all types of maladies on our extensive Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments page.

Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides a wide selection of live aquatic plants, aquarium decorations and http://www.justaquatic.com.au/shop/build-your-aquarium/betta-fish-tanks/
betta fish tanks and supplies.

Rhino Bond with the Kaziranga National Park

One-Horned Rhino, Rhinoceros unicornis. See more interesting animalsGreater One-Horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, Photo Source, Flickr

The instinctive bond of One-Horned Rhinos with Kaziranga National Park.

“The only way to save a rhinoceros is to save the environment in which it lives, because there’s a mutual dependency between it and millions of other species of both animals and plants.” – David Attenborough

Rhinoceros, commonly known as rhino, is a name used for the uneven-toed ungulate animal that belongs to the family of Rhinocerotidae. The largest of the rhino species is the one-horned rhino. A single glimpse of this majestic wild animal is enough to enthrall a nature aficionado. The exotic one-horned rhinos are the pride of India and were once present in the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent. However, the rhino population in the country has been depleted because of the continuous poaching.

Interesting Facts About One-Horned Rhinoceros

One-horned rhinos are herbivorous animals that have a thick skin on their body. There are a good number of one horned rhinos in India owing to extremely effective conservation efforts taken by the authorities. Greater one-horned rhinos are creatures who love solitude. They are principally grazers, with their diet almost completely consisting of grasses and leaves, fruits, tree branches, shrubs, and aquatic plants.

This animal has a great sense of hearing and a wonderful sense of smell. Hence, they can find their companions with no trouble. Rhinos go around in the search of food when the climate is a bit cooler and they avoid the heat of the afternoon. They submerge themselves in water when the temperature is high in order to avoid direct exposure to severe heat. The greater one-horned rhinos are expert swimmers and can feed underwater as well.

The one-horned rhinos at Kaziranga National Park are poached extensively for their horn as it is believed that their horn is useful in making medicine. They went to the brink of extinction because of these killings. To prevent them from disappearance, the government of India has employed many conservation projects. Several protected areas are taking essential steps to conserve this amazing wildlife species. Most prominent of them is Kaziranga National Park!

Kaziranga and One-Horned Rhinos

The legacy of India lies not just in its imposing monuments but also in its natural wonders. Kaziranga National Park is a protected area in India that has conserved the wonders and beauty of nature. This park is well known for its commendable and huge wildlife assortment and is a well-respected natural center for varied wildlife species in the country. It is situated on the bank of the huge Brahmaputra River in the districts of Nagaon and Golaghat, Assam. This intriguing protected area is also famous for the conservation of great number of one-horned rhinos. In the year 2012, the population of one horned rhinos in Kaziranga was expected to be 2,329. This park was set up in Assam to save the population of one-horned rhinos from harm.

Almost two-thirds of world’s rhino population resides in the immensely widespread areas of Kaziranga National Park. Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, also known as Lady Curzon, visited this region in the year 1904 and she later pioneered the conservation work in this park. Kaziranga is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site that has been thriving in the conservation of the animal species. This national park has become an essential element of Assam tourism in modern times, since a large number of wildlife buffs swarms it every year. One-horned rhinos enjoy an ultimate and ideal environment in this park, where there are enormous spans of greenery and glinting water bodies. Several wildlife safaris are carried out all through the tourist seasons to facilitate wildlife lovers in watching the one-horned rhinos up close. These safaris or guided tours are conducted with the help of jeeps or elephants.

Several confines have been positioned to guard this national park from being contaminated or causing any sort of annoyance to its exotic flora and fauna. Loads of wildlife aficionados broaden their support in a number of ways for improving conservation practices for the one-horned rhino and generating more employment prospects. As a result of such actions, the population of one-horned rhinos has improved to a substantial degree over the years. The significant factor that creates a center of attention for visitors the most is the vista of one-horned rhinos that can be seen in a large number of areas in this beautiful wildlife sanctuary.

More info about Kaziranga National Park

How to reach:

  • BY ROAD: Kaziranga is located 217 kms east of Guwahati. There is around a 4 hour drive from Guwahati on NH-37, to reach the park. This park is well connected with the cities like Tezpur (80 kms), Jorhat (97 kms) and Dibrugarh (250 kms).
  • BY AIR: The nearest airport from Kaziranga is Guwahati (217 kms).
  • BY RAIL: Nearest Railhead is in Furkating (80 km) from where a tourist can take any mode of transportation to get to Kaziranga.

Best time to visit:

Kaziranga National Park is open for the wildlife admirers and nature lovers from 1st November to 30th April every year. It is rampaged by the floods during monsoon season. Overfilling of vacationers for the duration of December and January encumbers a private experience. Hence, the months of February and March are the best months to pay a visit to Kaziranga National Park.

Kaziranga is an ideal abode for one-horned rhinos. A visit to this arresting park crowns the minds of wildlife lovers with spellbinding sights of this mammoth creature that one can treasure for a lifetime.

Anshul Srivastava is a wildlife enthusiast, who loves to wander around different wildlife destinations of India. At the same time, he has got a command over writing and thus, he pens down and shares his experience with the world.

6 Tips for Picking Your First Aquarium Fish

Learn how to start your aquariumLearn how to start your aquarium!
Freshwater Aquarium Basics

The right aquarium fish can make all the difference. Here’s 6 great tips to help you choose the best beginner fish as you embark on your aquarium keeping adventure!

Choosing your first aquarium fish may seem like a daunting task for a beginner. However, with a little research, you will be able to know what fish will prove to be hardy, undemanding, and well-suited to beginners. Perhaps the pet store may have recommended guppies, neons, or catfish, but many beginners have found it difficult to raise them, considering that they are still learning the ropes of aquarium fish care.

These six important tips will help you pick your first aquarium fish. Taking care of these fish species will certainly be a rewarding undertaking that will fuel your love for the hobby.

1. Choose fish which can easily adapt to new surroundings

A good first species should be one that is hardy, active, confident, and disease resistant. Select fish that appear healthy. Avoid fish that manifest visible signs of disease such as white spots, discolored skin patches, frayed fins, etc. Make sure that the fish can withstand water fluctuation since a new tank often has fluctuations in water quality that can stress your fish.

Aside from water conditions, your new fish should be able to adapt well to the presence of aquarium decorations and to the company of other fish species in the tank. Large or active fish can thrive well alone in a tank with little aquarium decor. However, there are fish species that find being alone distressing. Even with excellent water quality, you may find your pet hiding, not feeding, and may become vulnerable to illness.

2. Avoid fish with known specific feeding habits

Pick a fish species that can be fed a simple flake food for the first 6-8 weeks. Fish with specific feeding habits may result in excess amounts of waste products leading to high ammonia and nitrites in the water. The accumulation of these compounds is hazardous to your fish population.

3. Select fish from the same community

Selecting fish species from the same community will help ensure that you achieve balance in your aquarium. If you choose to get several varieties, make sure that they will get along well. Be sure to select the hardiest species. Fish that belong to the same community will have similar water chemistry and temperature requirements while exhibiting like behavior.

4. Start with peaceful community fish species

Aggressive tropical fish species may need to be fed live feeder-fish and this can certainly add up on your list of responsibilities. It is important to know which aggressive fish species can be matched, or else your peaceful community fish species may end up being eaten by its more aggressive tank mates. Aggressive fish species also need more tank space. Some of the tropical fish species that can thrive well in a community tank include tetras, gouramis, and platys.

5. Don’t buy too many at once

It is important that you stock your aquarium slowly. Being a neophyte, you run the risk of losing large numbers of fish to disease or bad water quality. Putting in many fish at the onset may overload the new tank water and lead to a build up of ammonia. The size and type of your tank and aquarium filter will help determine the amount and frequency of introducing new fish species to your tank. As a rule of thumb, no more than six small fish species should be added every seven days.

6. Buy from reputable breeders and pet shops

Before buying fish from a breeder or pet shop, it is recommended to visit the establishment and observe how they take care of the fish. You can see for yourself if the fish has a healthy appetite or is suffering from any health problems or defects. Never buy fish from aquarium shops that are not particular about maintaining hygiene and sanitation in their tanks. Pet shops that allow dead fish floating inside the tank or fail to quarantine sick fish should never be patronized.

Peter Hartono is the founder and CEO of Just Aquatic – a proud Australian company that provides excellent online aquarium supplies for betta fish tanks, goldfish tanks and also aquatic plant care products carrying top of the line brands including API, biOrb and Exo Terra.

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